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发表时间:2016-02-18 11:02:08 作者:zhouzhengmao 阅读:80次


      Establishing the importance of the topic for the world or society 表示…对社会对重要性
      X is a fundamentalproperty of ….
      Xs are fast becoming a keyinstrument in ….
      X plays an important rolein the maintenance of ….
      Xs are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known.
      X is a major publichealth problem, and the main cause of ….
      Xs are one of the most rapidly declining groups of insects in ….
      In the new global economy, X has become a central issue for ….
      Xs play a vital role interrestrial ecosystems by maintaining ….
      X is the leading causeof death in western-industrialised countries.
      Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and ….
      X is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern.
      X is an importantcomponent in the climate system, and plays a key role in Y.
      In the history of development economics, X has been thought of as a key factor in ….
      Establishing theimportance of the topic for the discipline 
      A key aspect ofX is ….
      X is a classic problem in ….
      A primary concernof X is ….
      X is at the heart of ourunderstanding of ….
      X is an increasingly important area in applied linguistics.
      Investigating X is a continuing concern within ….
      Central to the entire discipline of X is the concept of ….
      One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophyis ….

Synopsis of literature 文献概要(这些句型在Report和Essay中经常会用到)
      Previous studies have reported ….
      Recent evidence suggests that ….
      Several attempts have been made to ….
      Studies of X show the importance of ….
      A number of researchers have reported ….
      Recently investigators have examined the effects of X on Y.
      Factors found to be influencing X have been explored in several studies.
      In the past two decades a number of researchers have sought to determine ….
      A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies ….
      Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) showed that ….
      The first serious discussions and analyses of X emerged during the 1970s with….
      There have been a number of longitudinal studies involving X that have reported….
      Xs were reported in the first models of Y (e.g., Smith, 1977; Smith and Patel,1977).
      What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that investigatehow ….
      Smith (1984: 217) shows how, in the past, research into X was mainly concernedwith ….

Highlighting a problem 强调一个问题
      However, a major problem with this kind of application is ….
      Lack of X has existed as a health problem for many years.
      However, these rapid changes are having a serious effect on ….
      Despite its safety and efficacy, X suffers from several major drawbacks:
      However, research has consistently shown that these students lack ….
      There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged ….
      Despite its long clinical success, X has a number of problems in use.
      Questions have been raised about the safety of prolonged use of ….
      Along with this growth in X, however, there is increasing concern over ….

Highlighting acontroversy in the field of study 强调一个这个学术领域备受争议的话题
      To date there has been little agreement on what ….
      One major issue in early X research concerned ….
      The issue has grown in importance in light of recent ….
      One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in ….
      Questions have been raised about the safety of prolonged use of ….
      Debate continues about the best strategies for the management of ….
      In many Xs, a debate is taking place between Ys and Zs concerning ….
      This concept has recently been challenged by X studies demonstrating ….
      The debate about X has gained fresh prominence with many arguing that ….
      More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about….
      One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophyis ….
      One major theoretical issue that has dominated the field for many yearsconcerns ….
      The controversy about scientific evidence for X has raged unabated for over acentury.
      The causes of X have been the subject of intense debate within the scientificcommunity.
      The issue of X has been a controversial and much disputed subject within thefield of ….
      In the literature on X, the relative importance of Y has been subject toconsiderable debate.

Highlighting inadequaciesof previous studies 强调之前学术文章的不足之处
      Researchers have not treated X in much detail.
      Previous studies of X have not dealt with ….
      Half of the studies evaluated failed to specify whether ….
      Most studies in the field of X have only focussed on ….
      Most studies in X have only been carried out in a small number of areas.
      The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.
      The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no general agreementabout ….
      Such expositions are unsatisfactory because they ….
      The research to date has tended to focus on X rather than Y.
      Research on the subject has been mostly restricted to limited comparisons of ….
      The existing accounts fail to resolve the contradiction between X and Y.
      However, few writers have been able to draw on any systematic researchinto ….
      However, much of the research up to now has been descriptive in nature ….
      However, these results were based upon data from over 30 years ago and it isunclear if ….
      Although extensive research has been carried out on X, no single study existswhich ….
      X’s analysis does not take account of …. nor does he examine ….

Highlighting a knowledge gap in the field of study突出研究领域的知识差距
      What is not yet clear is the impact of X on ….
      No previous study has investigated X .
      There has been little quantitative analysis of ….
      The neurobiological basis of this X is poorly understood.
      Until recently, there has been no reliable evidence that ….
      In addition, no research has been found that surveyed ….
      Little is known about X and it is not clear what factors ….
      This indicates a need to understand the various perceptions of X that existamong ….
      So far this method has only been applied to ….
      So far, however, there has been little discussion about ….
      However, far too little attention has been paid to ….
      However, the evidence for this relationship is inconclusive ….
      However, much uncertainty still exists about the relation between ….
      However, there have been no controlled studies which compare differences in ….
      However, very little is known about X in non-mammalian vertebrates and in ….
      However, there are currently no estimates of the value of the long-term impactsof ….

      Indicating the focus, aim, argument of a shortpaper
      This paper conteststhe claim that ….
      This paper will review the research conducted on ….
      This paper will focus on/examine/give an account of ….
      This paper seeks to remedy these problems by analysing the literature of ….
      This paper examines the significance of X in the rise of ….
      This essay critically examines/discusses/traces ….
      The central thesis of thispaper is that ….
      The aim of the paper is to provide a conceptual theoretical framework basedon….
      The purpose of this paper is to review recent research into the ….
      In this paper I argue that ….
      In the pages that follow, it will be argued that ….
      This paper attempts to show that ….
      In this essay, I attempt to defend the view that ….
      This account seeks to ….

Stating the purpose of research 调查的目的
      The major objective ofthis study was to investigate …..
      The aim of this study was to clarify several aspects of ….
      The aim of this study is to investigate the differences between X and Y.
      The aim of this research project has therefore been to try and establish what….
      The main aim of this investigation is to assess the doses and risks associatedwith ….
      The aim of this study is to shine new light on these debates through anexamination of ….
      This paper investigatesthe usefulness of ….

Research questions or hypotheses 提出research的问题或者假设
      The central question inthis dissertation asks how ….
      This research seeks to address the following questions:
      In particular, this dissertation will examine six main research questions:
      The hypothesis that will be tested is that ….
      The key research question of this study was thus whether or not ….
      This study aimed to address the following research questions:
      Another question is whether ….

Synopsis of the research design, method,source(s) of data 概论research的设计、方法以及数据的来源
      Five works will be examined,all of which ….
      Data for this study were collected using ….
      This dissertation follows a case-study design, with in-depth analysis of ….
      This study was exploratory and interpretative in nature.
      The approach to empirical research adopted for this study was one of ….
      The methodological approach taken in this study is a mixed methodology based on….
      By employing qualitative modes of enquiry, I attempt to illuminate the ….
      This work takes the form of a case-study of the ….
      Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this investigation.
      A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches was used in the dataanalysis.
      Qualitative and quantitative research designs were adopted to provide ….
      A holistic approach is utilised, integrating X, Y and Z material to establish….
      The research data in this thesis is drawn from four main sources: ….
      The study was conducted in the form of a survey, with data being gathered via….

Indicating significance 提出及其重要的观点
      This project provided animportant opportunity to advance the understanding of …..
      Thus, this study provides an exciting opportunity to advance our knowledge of….
      This is the first study to undertake a longitudinal analysis of ….
      The findings should make an important contribution to the field of …..
      Therefore, this study makes a major contribution to research on X bydemonstrating ….
      The study offers some important insights into ….
      This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research byexploring ….
      There are several important areas where this study makes an originalcontribution to ….

Indicating limitations 指明不足之处
      The thesis does not engage with …. 
      Due to practical constraints, this paper cannot provide a comprehensive reviewof ….
      It is beyond the scope of this study to examine the ….
      The reader should bear in mind that the study is based on ….
      Another potential problem is that the scope of my thesis may be too broad.
      A full discussion of X lies beyond the scope of this study.

Giving reasons for personal Interest* 表达自己的观点
      My main reason forchoosing this topic is personal interest.
      I became interested in Xs after reading ….
      This project was conceived during my time working for X. As a medical advisor,I witnessed …
      I have worked closely with X for many years and ….
      It is my experience of working with X that has driven this research.
      * sometimes found in the humanities, and the applied human sciences

Outlining the structure 列出文章结构
      The main questions/issuesaddressed in this paper are: a), b and c).
      This paper has been divided into four parts. The first part deals with ….
      The essay has been organised in the following way.
      This paper reviews the evidence for ….
      This paper begins by …. It will then go on to ….
      The first section of this paper will examine ….
      This paper first gives a brief overview of the recent history of X.
      My thesis is composed off our themed chapters.
      The overall structure of the study takes the form of six chapters, including this introductory chapter.
      Chapter Two begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research,and looks at how ….
      The third chapter is concerned with the methodology used for this study.
      The fourth section presents the findings of the research, focusing on the three key themes that ….
      Chapter 6 analyses the results of interviews and focus group discussions undertaken during ….
      The remaining part of the paper proceeds as follows: ….
      The final chapter draws upon the entire thesis, tying up the various theoretical and empirical strands in order to ….
      …. and includes a discussion of the implication of the findings to future research into this area.
      Finally, the conclusion gives a brief summary and critique of the findings.
      Finally, areas for further research are identified.