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如何写英文论文Methodology?

发表时间:2022-05-27 14:57:38 作者:zzm 阅读:490次

论文中很重要的一个环节就是讨论你做研究使用的方法。方法论章节解释了你做了什么以及是如何做到的,让读者能够评估你研究的可靠性和有效性。本文就来教会大家如何写英文论文的Methodology.

如何写英文论文Methodology?

英文论文的Methodology应该包括:

• The type of research you did
• How you collected your data
• How you analyzed your data
• Any tools or materials you used in the research
• Your rationale for choosing these methods 

注:方法论部分用一般过去时。

一、Methodology的组成部分

1. Step 1:Explain your methodological approach 解释你的方法论

方法论部分要从介绍你做研究的总体方法开始。

你要调查的研究问题是什么?例如,你的目标是系统地描述事物的特征,探索研究存在空白的主题,还是建立因果关系?你需要通过什么类型的数据来实现这一目标?

• Did you need quanlitative data (expressed in numbers) or qualitative data (expressed in words)?
• Did you need to collect primary data yourself, or did you use secondary data that was collected by someone else?
• Did you gather experimental data by controlling and manipulating variables, or descriptive data by gathering observations without intervenlng?

根据你所研究的学科范围和方法,还可以从讨论支撑你研究方法的基本原理和假设开始。

• Why is this the most suitable approach to answering your research questions?
• Is this a standard methodology in your field or does It require justification?
• Were there any ethical con siderations invo Ived in your choices?
• What are the criteria for validity and reliability in this type of research?

2. Step 2:Describe your methods of data collection 描述你的数据收集方法

介绍了你研究的整体方法之后,就应该提供你的数据收集方法的全部细节。

·Quantitative methods

定量研究中,为了获得有效的结果,我们应该足够详细地描述使用的方法,以便其他研究人员可以复制研究工作。这里需要解释你如何操作和测量变量;抽样方法和纳入/排除标准;以及你用于收集数据的任何工具、程序和材料。

A. Surveys 调查

描述调查的时间、地点和方式。

• How did you design the questionnaire and what form did the questions take (e.g. multiple choice, Likert scale)?
• What sampling method did you use to select particlpants?
• Did you con duct surveys by phone, mail, onli ne or In person, and how long did participa nts have to respond?
• What was the sample size and response rate?

注:如果需要,可以将完整的问卷作为附录放在论文后,以便读者可以准确地看到你收集了哪些数据。

B. Experiments 实验

详细说明你用于进行试验的工具、程序和技术。

• How did you design the experiment?
• How did you recruit participants?
• How did you manipulate and measure the variables?
• What tools or technologies did you use in the experiment?

在实验中,为其他研究人员提供足够的细节以重现你的结果尤为重要。

C. Existing data 现有数据

• Where did you source the material?
• How was the data originally produced?
• What criteria did you use to select material(e.g. date range)?
  
需要在分析中说明你如何收集和选择材料(例如出版物或档案数据)。

例如:

Quantitative methods example

The survey consisted of 5 multiple-choice questions and 10 questions that were measured on a 7・ point Likert scale ・ The aim was to con duct the survey with 350 customers of Compa ny X on the company premises in The Hague from 4-8 July 2017 between 11:00 and 15:00. A customer was defined as a person who had purchased a product from Company X on the day of question!ng. Participants were given 5 minutes to fill in the survey anonymously, and 408 customers responded. Because not all surveys were fully completed, 371 survey results were included In the analysis・

·Qualitative methods

定性分析法通常更加灵活和主观,因此重要的是要反思你采用的方法并解释你所做的选择。这里就需要讨论你用于选择参与者或sources的标准、进行研究的背景以及你在收集数据中扮演的角色(例如,你是主动参与者还是被动观察者?)

A. Interviewsor focus groups 访谈或焦点小组

描述访谈的地点、时间和方式。

• How did you find and select participants?
• How many people took part?
• What form did the interviews take(structure, semi-structure, unstructured?)
• How long were the interviews and how were they recorded?

B. Participant observation 参与者观察

描述你在何处、何时以及如何进行观察。

• What group or comm unity did you observe and how did you gain access to them?
• How long did you spend conducting the research and where was it located?
• What role did you play In the community?
• How did you record your data (e.g. audiovisual record泊gs, note-taking)?

C. Existing data 现有数据

解释你如何选择案例研究材料(例如文本或图像)作为分析重点。

• What type of materials did you analyze?
• How did you collect and select them?

3. Step 3:Describe your methods of analysis 描述你的分析方法

接下来,你应该说明研究是如何处理和分析数据的。需要注意的是,这个阶段要避免介绍过多细节,也就是说不要在这一部分展示或讨论任何研究结果。

·Quantitative methods

在定量研究中,你的分析将是基于数字的。在方法论部分可能包括:
  
• How you prepared the data before analyzing it (e.g. checking for missing data, removing outliers, transforming variables)
• Which software you used to analyze the data (e.g・ SPSS, Stata or R)
• Which statistical tests you used (e.g・ lwo・tailed t・test, simple llnear regression)

例如:

Quantitative methods example

Before analysis the gathered data was prepared・ The dataset was checked for misslng data and outliers・ For this the "outlier labeling rule" was used・ All values outside the calculated range were considered outliers (Hoaglin & Iglewicz. 1987). The data was then analyzed using statistical software SPSS.

·Qualitative methods

在定性研究中,你的分析将基于语言、图像和观察(通常涉及某种形式的文本分析)。具体方法可能包括:

• Conte nt an alysis: categorizing and discussi ng the meaning of words, phrases and sentences
• Thematic analysis: coding and closely examining the data to identify broad themes and patterns
• Discourse analysis: studying communication and meaning in relation to their social context

例如:

Qualitative methods example

The interviews were Iran scribed and thematic an alysis was conducte d・ This involved coding all the data before identifying and reviewing six key themes・ Each theme was examined to gain an understanding of participants* perceptions and motivations.

4. Step 4:Evaluate and justify your methodological choices 评估并证明你的方法选择

方法论部分应该说明你选择这些特定方法的原因,特别是如果你没有采用对于自己研究主题来说最标准的方法。讨论一下为什么其他方法不适合你的研究目标,并说明这种方法如何贡献新的知识或理解。

我们可以承认选择方法的局限性或弱点,但是要说明采用这种方法的优势足以抵消这些局限性。例如:

Lab・based experlments can't always accurately simulate real-life situations and behaviors, but they are effective for test!ng causal relationships between variables.

Unstructured interviews usually produce results that cannot be generalized beyond the sample group, but they provide a more in-depth understanding of participants* perceptions, motivations and emotions.

Methodology撰写技巧

二、Methodology撰写技巧


1. Focus on your objectives and research questions 专注于你的目标和研究问题

Methodology部分应该清楚说明为什么你的研究方法适合你的研究目标,并让读者相信你选择了最好的方法来回答你的研究问题。整个部分都要与论文的中心目的联系起来。

2. Cite relevant sources 引用相关来源

研究方法可以通过引用该领域现有的研究来加强:

• Confirm that you followed established practices for this type of research
• Discuss how you evaluated different methodologies and decided on your approach
• Show that you took a novel methodological approach to address a gap in the literature

3. Discuss obstacles 讨论缺陷

如果你在收集或分析数据时遇到困难,需要说明你是如何处理这些问题的。先发制人提出你的研究方法的缺陷和不足,并证明你的措施已经使研究尽可能的严格。

三、常见问题


1. 什么是Reliability(信度)和Validity(效度)?

• Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure (whether the results can be reproduced under the same conditions).
• Validity refers to the accuracy of a measure (whether the results really do represent what they are supposed to measure).

2. Method和Methodology的区别?

Methodology refers to the overarching strategy and rationale of your research project. It involves studying the methods used in your field and the theories or prlnciples behind them, in order to develop an approach that matches your objectives.

Methods are the specific tools and procedures you use to collect and analyze data (for example, experiments, surveys, and statistical tests).

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