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Essay开头怎么写?Essay开头段模板举例

发表时间:2021-06-21 09:30:29

      正所谓“万事开头难”,我们留学生在写Essay的时候亦如是。很多留学生收到老师给的Essay题目一脸懵逼不知道Essay开头段怎么写,眼看着due一天天临近写作进度却一拖再拖。作为专业Essay代写机构,本文就位大家分享Essay开头的写作——方法漏斗开头法(funnel introduction)以及一些开头段模板举例。

Essay开头段基本结构

    1.Essay开头段基本结构


      首先,让我们来了解开头段基本结构,它包含了两大部分(摘自《Writing Academic English》):
      1. General statements (背景概述)
      2. the thesis statement (中心思想)

      那么,开头段这两大部分的分别作用是什么呢?
      1. General statements
      introduce the general topic of the essay
      capture the reader's interest
      2. the thesis statement
      states the specific topic
      may list subtopics or subdivisions of the main topic or subtopics
      may indicate the pattern of organzation of the essay
      is normally the last sentence in the introductory paragraph

    2.Essay开头段模板范文


      带着对以上“背景概述”和“中心思想”分别作用的初步理解,我们来通过Essay开头模板范例加深了解它们吧!
 
      Example:
      | When the first Europeans came to the North American continent, they encountered the completely new cultures of the Native American peoples of North America. Native Americans, who had highly developed cultures in many respects, must have been as curious about the strange European manners and customs as the Europeans were curious about them. As always happens when two or more cultures come into contact, there was a cultural exchange. Native Americans adopted some of the Europeans' ways, and the Europeans adopted some of their ways. As a result, Native Americans have made valuable contributions to modern U.S. culture, particularly in the areas of language, art, food, and government.|(案例来源:《Writing Academic English》)

      无划线部分general statements:
      |When the first Europeans came to the North American continent, they encountered the completely new cultures of the Native American peoples of North America. Native Americans, who had highly developed cultures in many respects, must have been as curious about the strange European manners and customs as the Europeans were curious about them. As always happens when two or more cultures come into contact, there was a cultural exchange. Native Americans adopted some of the Europeans' ways, and the Europeans adopted some of their ways.|

      第一句介绍了当欧洲人首次到达北美大陆后,他们接触了全新文化。第二句则指出欧洲人和北美本土居民之间的巨大差异。第三四句表明了双方文化都发生了变化。但是读到这里,读者们是不是发现,其实并不清楚到底具体发生了哪些变化?

      所以,在“背景概述”(general statements)部分,我们只是了解了一个大方向的背景,它在引导读者们了解这篇文章的主题背景内容,和吸引读者去看文章,却没有给出具体的内容。

      有划线部分the thesis statement:
     |As a result, Native Americans have made valuable contributions to modern U.S. culture, particularly in the areas of language, art, food, and government.|

      正是因为general statements只给出了大方向的背景,而无具体文章走向,所以中心思想(the thesis statement)需要给出具体性语言,清楚地告知了读者文化到底发生了什么方向的变化,并且还能陈述清楚具体被影响的细项(language, art, food and government)。

    3.漏斗开头段技法


      那么,以上这个开头段案例,就运用了咱们开头所说的“漏斗开头法”(funnel introduction)。之所以这么称呼它,是因为整个开头段的布局如同一个漏斗一样,在顶端比较宽,而底部比较窄。
漏斗图
      在开头段部分,咱们首先会以1-2句非常概述性的语言介绍主题。而随后的句子会越来越集中于需要探讨的主题,直到最后一句话给出该文章非常具体性的内容。运用“漏斗开头法”的过程,就如同你在拍照的时候,一开始先定位在整个大的画面,然后不断地、越来越集中地聚焦到最需要被拍摄的对象——你的中心思想(thesis statement)。

      个人认为,“漏斗开头法”属于一种非常中规中矩的开头段技法,运用了“从大到小”和“从泛到精”的常规逻辑,不仅容易上手,也不容易出错。

      当然,你也可以将这种“漏斗开头法”称呼为“倒三角开头法”(an inverted-pyramid introduction),其实本质也是一样的。

倒三角写作示意图
(图片来源:《Speaking and Writing Strategy for the TOEFL iBT》)

      如果将这种“漏斗开头法”或“倒三角开头法”运用到考场类作文(比如雅思或者托福写作中考察观点类)之时,我们则可以在开头部分先运用一些吸引他人的引子(hooks),表明整个主题的背景(等同于前文提及的general statements),随后给出一些表达个人观点的过渡词(transitions,参考以下内容),表明自己的中心观点(opinion,等同于前文提及的thesis)。
      In my opinion,
      As far as I am concerned,
      In my experience,
      In my view,
      In my estimation,
      From my experience,
      From my perspective, 
      Personally speaking,

      以上就是关于“漏斗开头法”的介绍啦!最后,给各位留下另一个案例,看看你们能否清楚辨认哪些是“general statements”,哪些是“the thesis statement”?

      Example:
     |Moving to a new country can be an exciting, even exhilarating experience. In a new environment, you somehow feel more alive. Seeing new sights, eating new food, hearing the foreign sounds of a new language, and feeling a different climate against your skin stimulate your sense as never before. Soon, however, this sensory bombardment becomes sensory overload. Suddenly, new experiences seem stressful rather than stimulating, and delight turns into discomfort. This is the phenomenon known as culture shock. Culture shock is more than jet lag or homesickness, and it affects nearly everyone who enters a new culture—tourists, business travelers, diplomats, and students alike. Although not everyone experiences culture shock in exactly the same way, many experts agree that it has roughly five stages.

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