WHAT IS AN INTRODUCTION? WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
The introduction paragraph is the first paragraph in the paper. This paragraph presents the thesis of the paper – the main claim or assertion the author is making through the presentation of supporting information. In addition, this paragraph establishes the context of the paper (Davis, Davis, Stewart, & Bullock (2013). This context should be presented in a manner that is neither so broad that it includes irrelevant information not presented in the body, nor so specific that it goes into too much detail about the information discussed in the body. This paragraph is essential for clear and organized writing. By providing an appropriate context and an effective thesis sentence, the introduction allows the writer to narrow the scope of their paper and helps with ensuring all information and claims relate back to the thesis. Some strategies for creating introductions are discussed below.
引言段是论文的第一段。本段介绍论文的论点——作者通过提供支持信息提出的主要主张或主张。此外，本段确定了论文的背景（Davis、Davis、Stewart and Bullock, 2013）这种背景的呈现方式既不能太宽泛，也不能包含正文中未呈现的无关信息，如此具体以至于它对正文中讨论的信息进行了过多的详细介绍。这一段对于清晰和有条理的写作至关重要。通过提供适当的上下文和有效的论文句子，引言允许作者缩小论文的范围并有助于确保所有信息和声明都与论文相关。下面讨论了一些创建引言的策略。
THE GENERAL STRUCTURE OF AN INTRODUCTION
There are many models for how introduction paragraphs should be written, what they should include, and their specific formatting. If in doubt about the exact format and/or contents, refer to the professor’s specific preferences. However, when writing for academic purposes, the inverted triangle model is the most frequently used structure (see diagram). This method presents the introduction in a deductive structure (general to specific) (Davis et al., 2013).
THE INTRODUCTION’S DIFFERENT COMPONENTS
General Statement. The general statement is intended to be a broad (but not overly broad) statement that introduces the general paper topic.
Specific and More Specific Statements.These start providing the reader with essential background information required to understand your paper topic and the general context in which your paper fits. Introduce only some of the essential information without going into too much detail, as that is the purpose of the paper’s body. If applicable to the assignment or purpose of writing, it can be a good idea to use this section to establish a problem that your paper will address.
Thesis. Broadly defined, the paper’s thesis is your assertion. It is the main claim you are making that will be supported in the body of your paper. The exact format and characteristics of the thesis will vary depending on the type of paper you are writing. Davis et al. (2013) explain that thesis statements are tailored to specific types of writing, including persuasive, research, argumentative, and analysis papers. When writing the paper, use the thesis statement to check that the content in the paper’s body is developing the assertion you made.
Paper Organization.The last section of the introduction paragraph should outline how your paper is organized. While this element may be omitted depending on the nature and length of the paper, it is especially useful when writing larger, more complex papers that include multiple sections. This provides the reader with a general idea of how the paper is laid out and the topics that will be discussed. Combined with the use of effective topic sentences in the paper’s body, this part of the introduction contributes to the paper’s overall organization and clarity.
If you are unsure what this means in effect, have a look at our example introductions.
In this paper, it is understood that ‘academic writing’ has the meaning as clearly given by Hopkins (2008) of “'structured research' written by 'scholars' for other scholars (with all university writers being 'scholars' in this context).” （definition of terms）
It is also important to consider, at this initial stage, the question of ‘Are standards of academic writing among British students actually falling?’ (background to the topic）The Guardian Education Notebook (2008) reported “Academic standards are in decline in many British universities, Professor Geoffrey Alderman, a senior figure in higher education, told the press last month, ‘Students who would once have failed pass,and students who would once have been awarded respectable lower seconds are now awarded upper seconds and even firsts,’”（quotation）
There is a great deal of research being carried out to prove whether these claims are true.（background to the topic）However, it is not the purpose of this paper to present this evidence.Instead, it will present two perspectives on this decline. The first suggests that falling academic standards are the result increased access to technology and therefore ‘stealing’ essays and cheating. Oppositely, the second perspective presented here suggests that a great deal can be done, and is being done, by universities to bring students up to expected standards and that modern technologies can greatly enhance an institution’s ability to identify cheating and to facilitate access to skills training.（Outline of the aims of the essay ）
Finally, this essay will consider a rather sensitive subject: if standards of academic writing are falling that must suggest that either fewer students are achieving high grades, or that universities are applying laxer standards in assessing student work. (Suggestion of the conclusion the essay will reach ）
Davis, R., Davis, L. K., Stewart, K. L., Bullock, C. J. (2013). Essay writing for Canadian students with readings (7th ed.). Toronto, ON: Pearson.