您当前所在位置:首页 > 常见问题








Reports Essays
Reports often originate from outside the academic world:they are typical of writing required for the world of work.
Essays originate in academic settings:they are rarely used anywhere else.
Reports often present data and findings that you have collected yourself, for example through a survey, experiment or case study, or by applying theory to your workplace.
Essays focus on analyzing or evaluating theory, past research by other people and ideas.They seldom present the findings of newly conducted research.

Essays and reports have different different.
Essays and reports have different different.
A report is divided into separate, headed(and sometimes numbered) sections and sub-sections.
Essays do not usually have sections; they flow as a continuous piece of writing.

A report may contain tables, charts and diagrams.
Essays do not usually include tables,charts or diagrams.
Reports usually include descriptions ofthe methods used(e.g. 'I observed')
Essays should not refer to the method used in arriving at conclusions.
The description in a report often includes comment on how the research could be improved and extended.
Essays are not usually reflective about the process of researching and writing the essay itself.
Reports often include recommendations for action.
Essays do not include recommendations.


Report结构 Essay结构
Abstract (executive summary) --- very briefly summarizes the whole report (should be written last).
Introduction--- gives some background information about the issue and that ‘signposts’ what the essay is goingto cover.
Introduction --- describesthe purpose of the report, explains why it is necessary and/or useful, and setsout its precise aims and objectives.
Body--- divided into paragraphs that each deal with adifferent aspect of the issue. Most of the paragraphs in the body of an essayshould be linked one idea should ‘flow’ into another.
Literature review--- describes and analyses currentresearch and thinking on the problem or issue.
Conclusion --- summaries the main points made in the essay.
Methodology --- describesand justifies the methods used to collect data.
Bibliography(or reference list).
Results (findings)section that simply presents the results of the research (consist mainly oftables, charts, diagrams etc.).

Discussion (analysis orinterpretation) that analyses the results. This is often the most importantsection of a report.

Conclusion --- summarizesthe report, often revisiting the aims and objectives.

Recommendations --- thewriter uses the results and conclusions of the report to make practicalsuggestions about the problem or issue being discussed.

Bibliography (or referencelist).

Appendices (Appendix 1,Appendix 2, etc.) where data (e.g. in tables) to which the report refers is ‘stored’.