1. Getting Your Writing Published.
2. The Most Common Habits from more than 200 English Papers written by Graduate Chinese Engineering Students.
最近在学习Angelika H. Hofmann的《Scientific Writing and Communication: papers, proposals, and presentations》，感觉这本书不错（耶鲁大学的科技论文写作教材），所以做一些笔记供大家参考。
序（Tahia Thadddeus Reynaga, Ph.D.）
在给作者的写作建议中，下面这个是频率最高的：将你的所思所想写出来。然而，它是基于这样一个共识：清晰的表述依赖清晰的思维。那么我们就有两个核心问题需要考虑：如何清晰的思考以及如何将它们表述出来。简单的说，这需要教育和练习。然而，仅仅靠教育和练习还不足以让你获得基金资助或者打动同行。如果你不能学会为读者写作（write for the reader）而仅仅停留在向读者写作（write to the reader），你就只能制造平庸的作品来减损自己的学术贡献。
第一部分 科技写作原理 风格与组成
第二章 单词 （关于如何选择合适的词语及辨别近义词）
Writing principle 1: Write with the reader in mind.
Writing principle 2: Use precise words.
Science is quantitative. A quantitative detail is much clearer than a qualitative term.
"With" is one of the vaguest and most ambiguous terms in English. Because "with" can mean so many things, it's clearer to use a precise term whenever possible.
Writing principle 3: Use simple words.
Scientific writing has many technical terms. Therefore, to keep your writing from being too heavy, choose simple words for the rest of the sentence.
Writing principle 4: Omit unnecessary words and phrases.
Avoid any verbosity and wordiness by omitting unnecessary words and phrases and jargon (一个科技或专业群体内部使用的行话，不同于普遍使用和接受的术语).
Writing principle 5: Avoid too many abbreviations.
e.g. = exempli gratia-for example
et al. = et alia-and others
i.e. = id est-that is
Writing principle 6: Use correct nomenclature and terminology
Special cases: Watch out for misused words.
Special cases: Avoid sexism.
Writing principle 7: Establish importance
You should know what's important, what's less important, what's not important. In general, the end position in a sentence is more emphasized than the beginning position, and the main clause is more emphasized than the dependent clause.
Writing principle 8: Place old, familiar, and short information at the beginning of a sentence in the topic position
Writing principle 9: Place new, complex, or long information at the end of a sentence in the stress position
Writing principle 10: Get to the subject of the main sentence quickly, and make it short and specific. If possible, use central characters and topics as subjects.
Writing principle 11: Avoid interruptions between subject ans verb and between verb and object
Writing principle 12: use the first person.
It was once fashionable to avoid using "I" or "we" in scientific research papers because these terms were considered to be subjective, whereas the aim in science is to be objective. However, science is not purely objective. Writing from the point of view of "I" or "we" is appropriate in a scientific research paper wherever judgment comes in. Although in most of the sections of a scientific document, the use of first person is preferred, this use is more controversial in the Materials and Methods section. Therefor , in the Materials and Methods section, use of third person is usually preferred. In certain fields, such as in ecology, however, many journals require the use of first person and active voice even in the Materials and Methods section.
Writing principle 13: use the active voice.
Use the active voice rather than the passive voice. If the passive voice is used excessively, writing becomes very dull and dense. However, don't remove the passive voice completely. Use the passive voice when readers don't need to know who performed the action.
Writing principle 14: use past tense for observations, completed actions, and specific conclusions.
Writing principle 15: use the present tense for generalizations and statements of general validity.
The Abstract, Materials and Methods, as well as Results sections should employ past tense as they refer primarily to your own work. However, most of the Introduction describes previously established knowledge in present tense. The discussion relates your work to previously established knowledge. This section is the most difficult to write as it includes both past and present tense (Tense can be mixed in the same sentence or paragraph). Note that generally, remarks about the presentation of data should be in present tense, and descriptions of assumptions and theory should also be described in present tense in your paper.
Writing principle 16: write short sentences. Aim for one main idea in a sentence.
Short, simple sentences tend to emphasize the idea contained in them. The longer a sentence gets, the more difficult it is for the reader to identify what is of primary importance. Writing a short sentence that highlights the main topic is particularly important at the beginning of a section or paragraph.
What scientific authors should be aiming for is an average sentence length of about 20 to 22 words. This means that some sentences will be longer and some shorter, but the average number of words per sentence overall should be around 20 to 22.
Writing principle 17: Use active verbs.
Verbs are perhaps the most important part of an English sentence. With strong and active verbs, your writing enlivens and energizes. Avoid using weak verbs.
Abstract nouns derived from verbs and adjectives are called nominalizations. For better scientific style, avoid nominzlizaitons-use active verbs instead.
Writing principle 18：Avoid noun clusters
Noun clusters are nouns that are strung together to form one term. In English, nouns and adjectives can be used to modify other nouns. However, when nouns appear one right after the other, it can be difficult to tell how they relate to each other and what the real meaning of the cluster is. Avoid clusters of nouns, especially if there are more than two or three nouns in the cluster. These noun clusters are awkward and sometimes downright incomprehensible.
Note that not all sequences of nouns are noun clusters. Some noun pairs and clusters--such as "water bath", "cell wall", "egg receptor" and "sucrose density gradient"--are recognized as single words and accepted terms.
Writing principle 19：Use clear pronouns
It is essential that you use clear pronouns. Unclear pronouns are one of the most common problems in scientific writing. If the pronouns that refers to a noun is unclear, the reader may have trouble understanding the sentence. Be sure that the pronouns you use refer clearly to a noun in the current or previous sentence. If there are too many possible nouns the pronoun can refer to, repeat the reference noun after the pronoun.
Writing principle 20：Use correct parallel form and arrange ideas in a list to read from shorter to longer
Lists and ideas that are joined by "and", "or" or "but" are of equal importance in a sentence and so are ideas that are being compared. These ideas should be treated equally by writing them in parallel form. To write ideas in parallel form, the same grammatical structures are used. These grammatical structures can be single words, prepositional phrased, infinitive phrases, or clauses. If parallel ideas are written in parallel form, the reader does not get distracted by the form but can concentrate on the idea.
Writing principle 21：Avoid faulty comparisons
Aside from maintaining parallelism in your comparisons, you should avoid grammatical and logical problems when writing comparisons. These problems result in faulty comparisons, one of the most common problems in scientific writing. Faulty comparisons can arise because of ambiguous comparisons and incomplete comparisons. Faulty comparisons may also be due to the ouveruse of "compared to." Use "than" not "compared to" for comparative terms such as "smaller", "higher", "lower", "fewer", "greater", "more" and so forth.
Writing principle 22：Avoid errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar
第五章 Special ESL grammar problems (以英语为第二语言的读者需要注意的)
English as a second language (ESL) speakers not only have to formulate their research papers and talks in English, they also need to realize that the English language is a living thing deeply influenced by Internet communication and constantly changing, also in science.
Guideline: Use correct prepositions.
Prepositions are little Words that link nouns, pronouns and phrases to other Wordsworth in a sentence, indicating their temporal, spatial, or logical relationship to the rest of the sentence.
Most verbs can be used with more than one preposition, but you should be sure to choose the preposition that reflects your intended meaning. If you are unsure which preposition to use, consult a dictionary. However, be careful: the meanings of corresponding prepositions in English and other languages do not always coincide. Even native speakers are prone to incorrect use of prepositions.
A few words and expressions need special attention:
1. Compared takes the preposition to when it refers to unlike things. It takes with when two like things are examined.
2. Do not use different than when you should use different from.
3. Do not use following as a preposition.
4. The most commonly (mis)used prepositions in scientific writing include the following: in connection with, in contrast to, similar to, compared to/with, correlated with, analogous to Guideline: Use correct articles.
Guideline: Use correct plural and singular verb forms.
Guideline: Use correct form of irregular verbs.
Guideline: Do not omit endings of verbs.
ESL speakers who do not pronounce endings of words fully often omit endings of verbs in writing as well. Do not omit "-s", "-es", "-ed" or "-d" endings to use the third-person ending of a verb form or to express the past tense or past participle form of a verb.
Guideline: Follow a verb with the correct gerund or infinitive form.
Guideline: Distinguish between adjective and adverb.
Guideline: Ensure that every sentence has a subject.
Chapter 8 参考文献和剽窃
3. 使用EndNote或者Reference Manager管理你的参考文献；
4. 对照“Instructions to Authors”来设置参考文献的格式；参考文献包含两部分：text citations和reference list。text citations常见的格式有三种：“（author，year）”，“（number）”和“（number）”。
If you cite abstracts for meetings, conference proceedings, personal communications, or unpublished data in the text, you should give a publication status in parenthesis. Following are a few sample wordings for indicating publication status:
(manuscript in preparation)
(manuscript in press)
(data not shown)
5. 将text citations放在正确的位置
首先需要注意在摘要中不能有参考文献。一般而言，text citations可以放在ideas的后面或者作者的后面，这取决于你强调的对象时science还是scientist。但是text citations不能出现在idea的中间或者一般无关短语（如in a recent study，has been reported）的后面。这并不是说参考文献只能出现在句尾。当你的idea和其他人的idea同时出现在一个句子中时，恰当的放置text citations可以使二者区分开来。当一句话中引用多篇文献时更不能将它们全部列在句尾。
Quoting material without acknowledging the source. (This is the most obvious kind of plagiarism.)
Borrowing someone else's ideas, concepts, results, and conclusions and passingthem off as your own without acknowledging them-even if these ideas have been substantially reworded.
Summarizing and paraphrasing another's work without acknowledging the source.
Paraphrasing means taking another person's ideas and putting those ideas in your own words. This is the skill you will probably use most when incorporating sources into your writng. Although you use your own words to paraphrase, you must still cite the source of the information in the text at the end of the sentence or idea. It is important that you distinguish between paraphrasing and plagiarizing. Changing a word or two in someone else's sentence or changing the sentence structure while using the original words is not paraphrasing but plagiarizing.
5. 对所有图形：自变量在X轴，因变量在Y轴。X轴标签居中首字母大写，Y轴标签自底向上首字母大写。X轴和Y轴的刻度线向外突出。不要使用网格线。图例的使用遵循以下顺序：filled circles>open circles>filled and open triangles and squares...但是不要使用X、+、*或者0作为图例。
第十章 The Introduction
Introduction Guideline 1: Interest your audience and provide context.
Introduction Guideline 2: Follow a "funnel" structure.
Generally, readers expect the parts of the Introduction to be arranged in a standard structure: a "funnel", starting broadly with background information and then narrowing to what is the question of the paper. Introductions for research papers should contain the following elements:
Question/Purpose of Study
Although not an absolute necessity, the author of this book recommends including main results and conclusions as well as to state the overall significance of the paper to round up this section.
Introduction Guideline 3: Keep the Introduction short.
Ideally, an introduction of a typical journal article should be one to two double-spaced pages (about 250-600 words).
Check the Instructions to Authors of your target journal to ensure that you are within the set word limits for the Introduction.
Introduction Guideline 4: Provide pertinent background information, but do not review the literature.
Note that you should not review the topic when you are writing a research paper. A summary pertinent to the research you are presenting in the paper should suffice.
Introduction Guideline 5: State the unknown or problem. The unknown is clearest if you signal it by stating it directly, for example, "X is unknown" or "Y is unclear." You can also use other phrases to state the unknown outright: "has not been established," or "has not been determined." Alternatively, you can imply rather than state the unknown by using a suggestion or a possibility ("Previous findings suggest that ...").
Introduction Guideline 6: State the central point (question/purpose) precisely.
The most important element in a research paper is the research question or purpose of the work. THe question/purpose is the "central point" of your Introduction and of the paper as a whole. It therefor needs to be worded very carefully. If the central point is stated precisely, the reader immediately has an idea of what to expect in the paper. Furthermore, the reader can read the paper in a directed way rather than blindly, and the experiments make more sense.
The research question/purpose of a research paper should name the variables studied as well as the main features of the study. Note that the question/purpose is usually not written in the form of a question but as an infinitive phrase of as a sentence, using a present tense verb, as in the next examples: a To determine if the triggered cellular processes affect the rRNA structure and folding dynamic in vivo, ...
b Here we asked how rheumatic fever influences heart rate.Introduction Guideline 7: State the experimental approach briefly.
In general, the experimental approach is short--usually one sentence, at most, two or three sentences.
After the experimental approach, you may briefly state your main results and conclusion. Although their inclusion is not a must, know that readers like to read about the main results and conclusion of your work in the Introduction.
At last, consider stating why your findings are important. If you state the significance or implication at the very end of your Introduction, it not only rounds up this section nicely, but also provides the overall perspective of your work for the reader.
Introduction Guideline 8: Ensure good cohesion and coherence.
To ensure good flow or continuity, that is, to ensure that the overall story is clear, you should use all the techniques of cohesion and coherence presented in this book.
Introduction Guideline 9: Signal all the elements of the Introduction.
Important writing principles for the Introduction
下面是一个使用混合时态的例子：Herbert et al (9) found that peanut butter can be contaminated with Salmonella.
1. S. Keshav. June 26, 2012. How to read a paper.
2. How to read a research paper.
3. How to reply to referees' comments when submitting manuscripts for publication.
4. The top ten worst graphs.
6. Celia M. Elliott. Acknowledgments in Scientific Publications and Presentation.
7. Neidhard Paweletz. Walther Flemming: pioneer of mitosis research.