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工科专业留学生assignment写作各部分常用句型汇总

发表时间:2016-04-11

工科专业留学生assignment写作各部分常用句型汇总

工科专业的留学生们可能在做实验、做测量方面效率会很高,但是在写论文的时候可能效率就会低很多,但是学习强调的是理论与实践相结合,所以留学生既要做好课外实践,也要做好课堂上的理论知识。其中完成学术论文就是最常见的检验课堂知识的最好形式,为了帮助留学生们提高论文写作效率,本文中小编给工科专业的留学生们总结了assignment写作各部分常用句型汇总,希望能帮到大家。

Abstract:
      1、Introduction (Motivation/ purpose/goal/aim/objective/importance) (present tense) 
      1)The aim of this paper is to assess the accuracy of steady-state scale-up for small-scale sedimentary structures.
      2) An important objective of these well-constrained experiments is to evaluate current theoretical models of PGE solubility.
      2、Scope/perspective (past/present tense)
      1)This study examined fecal coliform reduction in domestic wastewater after receiving treatment through a constructed open water wetland, a slow sand filter, and a portable ultraviolet disinfection unit.
      2) The scope of this study was to compare the behavior and character of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during soil-aquifer treatment at different field sites in Arizona and California.
      3、method/procedure/approach (past tense)
      1)In this study, a lab-scale aerobic biofilter-biotrickling tower system packed with particulate plastic media (1.5 cm, hexagon in shape) was used to treat the salty artificial wastewater polluted by mineral oil (diesel fuel) mixed with chemical dispersant (CPC OD-10) and inorganic nutrients. 
      2)It involved recycling a small portion of the primary sludge and then activating it to enhance its biosorptive and flocculent properties through 30-min aeration. The aerated sludge was then brought into contact with raw sewage to induce rapid biosorption of soluble COD and flocculation of colloidal organic before the mixture was settled in a regular primary clarifier.
      4、Results/findings/products (past tense)
      e.g.  Three granitoid magmatic events were identified at 815 Ma, 700-730Ma, and 620-625Ma, which were marked by emplacement of the calc-alkaline Ujjukka granite and granodiorite, the anatectic Suqii-Wagga two-mica granite and the Guttin K-feldspar megacrystic granite, and the anorogenic Ganjii monzogranite, respectively.
      5、Discussion/Conclusions (present/past tense)
      e.g. The results showed that under traction free conditions subsidence was a three-dimensional problem and one-dimensional subsidence models tended to focus excessive amounts of vertical deformation near the pumped well. The magnitude of vertical deformation in one-dimensional subsidence models was exacerbated as the grid size became smaller in the vicinity of the pumping well. This was due to increased calculated drawdown in the vicinity of the well for more finely-spaced grids.
      6、Implications/applications (present tense)
e.g. Our experimental results are directly applicable to porphyry copper systems because in such systems temperature, PH, salinity and oxygen fugacity are similar to the experimental parameters. Application of our experimental results indicate that a typical porphyry systems can transport at least 40 tons of Pd if sources of platinum group elements (PGE) are available and the solubility-controlling phase is metallic Pd.
      7、limitations and suggestions for further studies (past/present tense for limitations, present/future tense for suggestions)
      e.g. 1) This study suggests that in order to achieve the highest treatment level of secondary unchlorinated wastewater, a combination of aquatic ponds and subsurface flow wetlands may be necessary. 
      2) In general, source water quality, drinking water and wastewater treatment should be viewed as one system in indirect potable re-use projects. 
      3) However, because constructed wetlands, besides the water quality improvement function, perform a multitude of other functions such as biodiversity, habitat, climatic, hydrological and public use functions, methodologies need to be developed to evaluate these functions and to weigh them in relation to the water quality issue.

Structure of an Abstract:
      1、The first sentence in the Abstract:
      • The purpose of this research is…
      • The primary goal of this research is…
      • The intention of this paper is to survey…
      • The overall objective of this study is…
      • The chief aim of the present work is to investigate…
      • The purpose of this paper is to explain why…
      • The primary object of this fundamental research is to reveal…
      • The main objective of our investigation has been to obtain…
      • The experiment made here is aimed at …
      • The emphasis of this study lies in…
      • The problem we have outlined here deals largely with the study of…
      • This study examined…. (past tense)
      2、The next sentences:
      • The method used in the study was…
      • The technique applied is referred to as…
      • The procedure was as follows…
      • The approach adopted extensively is called…
      • The experiment consisted of three steps:…
      • Included in the experiment were…
      • The test equipment which was used consisted of…
      • Several sets of experiments were carried out to test the validity of…
      • This formula is verified by…
      3、The ending part of an abstract:
      • The results of the experiment indicated that …
      • The studies showed that…
      • The studies we carried out demonstrated that…
      • The research suggested that…
      • The investigation carried out by… revealed that…
      • All the preliminary results threw light on …
      • As a result of our experiments, we concluded that…
      • From the experiments, we realized that…
      • This fruitful work provided explanation to …
      • The research work brought about a discovery of…
      • These findings of the research led the author to the conclusion that…
      4、The last sentences:
      • …should be further studied in relation to ...
      • …should do…
      • Further research into…is necessary.
      • Further study should be made in relation to…
      • Further investigation into…is needed. 

Introduction:
      Step 1: the nature and scope of the problem investigated. interest or importance, many other investigators active in the area.
      • Recently, there has been a spate of interest in how to…
      • In recent years, applied researchers have become increasingly interested in…
      • Recently, there has been wide interest in…
      • The well-known…phenomena…have been favorite topics for analysis both in…
      • Knowledge of …has a great importance for…
      • The study of …has become an important aspect of…
      • The effect of …has been studied extensively in recent years.
      • Many investigators have recently turned to…
      • The relationship between …has been studied by many authors.
      • A central issue in…is the validity of…    
      Step 2: making a topic generalization. 
      statements about knowledge or practice:
      • The pathology of… is well known.
      • There is now much evidence to support the hypothesis that…
      • The …properties of …are still not completely understood.
      • A standard procedure for assessing has been…
      • Education core courses are often criticized for…
      phenomena:
      • …is a common finding in patients with…
      • An elaborate system of…is found in the …
      • English is rich in related words exhibiting “stress shifts”.
      • There are many situations where examination scripts are marked and then re-marked by another examiner.  
      Step3:Discuss the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and summarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating. 
      Examples of integral citation forms(直接引用方式):
      • Halliday (2008) showed that the moon is …..
      • Halliday’s theory (2008) claims that …...
      • Halliday’s (2008) theory of lunar composition has general support.
      • According to Halliday (2008), the moon is…...
      Examples of indirect citation forms(间接引用方式):
      • Previous research has shown that the moon is …..(Brie, 1988).
      • It has been shown that the moon is made of cheese (Brie, 1988).
      • It has been established that the moon is made of cheese (Brie, 1988).
      • The moon is probably made of cheese (Brie, 1988).
      • The moon may be made of cheese (cf. Rock, 1989).
      Step4:Indicate a gap. 
      • No research has been done on …
      • Little effort has been spent on the study of…
      • (Very) few researchers have investigated…
      • The nature of…is overlooked.
      • Researchers have failed to notice that…
      • The result is misleading/questionable/inconclusive/limited.
      • The result of…has several limitations.
      • The research can rarely cover…
      Step5: State the purpose 
      • The purpose of this study was to.... 
      • We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the ... (1) …….(2) …….
      • This paper reports on the results obtained…
      • The aim of the present paper is to give…
      • The main purpose of the experiment reported here was to…
      • This study was designed to evaluate…
      • This paper aims to report the interaction of…
      Step6: rationale and approach
      For example: State briefly how you approached the problem (e.g., you studied oxidative respiration pathways in isolated mitochondria of cauliflower). This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the Introduction. 
      Step7: the arrangement of the writing at the end of the Introduction. 
      This paper is divided into five major sections: Section one opens with…. Section two presents…Section three deals with… Section Four reveals…Section five concludes the paper.   
      We have organized the rest of this paper in the following way…
      This paper is structured as follows…
      The remainder of this paper is divided into five sections. Section II describes…

Materials and Methods
      1.… (method) was used to do….
      2.The study used/made use of/employed the method that….
      3.描述方法过程的连接词:and/and then/then/next/the next step/before that/after that.

Conclusion or Discussion:
      Based on the above discussion, the following conclusion can be made that …
      From .., it can be concluded that…
      In conclusion, the result shows that…
      These findings of the research led to the conclusion that..
      To sum up, the research/this study reveals that…
      In summary, the result of the experiment demonstrates that…
      As a result of our experiments we concluded that…

The results:
      The data of the experiment are briefly summarized as follows.
      Figure 4 shows the results of the study.
      Table 6 presents the data obtained in the experiment.
      This table summarizes the data collected in this study.
      The findings of this study are summarized/listed in Table 7.
      The outcome of the experiment is reported in the following table.