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英文论文写作逻辑关系的编排

发表时间:2016-03-25

在英文论文写作中,留学生们要确保老师能认识到所陈述的论据的逻辑关系。不是所有的语言都是这样!尽管如此,即使是英语为母语的作者,也不清楚为了达到此目的的策略是什么。下面是我们提出的一些重要的策略,前面我们已经提到过一些,这里我们把这些内容整合在一起,并给出一些练习实例

策略1:总是以理念开头
      使用信息标题、副标题和前言引起读者的阅读欲望。
      A key to effective scientific and technical communication in English is to set up expectations in your reader'  s mind, and then meet these expectations as soon as possible.
      论文的标题是整体上告诉读者论文的主要信息,如果你的论文允许使用副标题,注意副标题的措辞,告诉读者接下来他们期望看到的是什么。每一个段落,用第一个句子作为主题句,告诉读者该段落的要点或目的;主题句也可用于建立上下段的联系。

策略2:从总体的信息得到更具体的信息
      读者首先期望读到的是主题或药店的总体信息,其次才是细节、例子或者具体的信息。阅读并思考下面的段落,判断是否满足从总体到具体的要求。是否有看上太总体化的句子出现在段落的后半段?(每个句子都标了号码,以便后面参照)
     1. Pleuropneumonia (APP) can present as a dramatic clinical disease or as a chronic, production limiting disease in pig herds.2. A sudden increase in the number of sick and coughing pigs and a sharp rise in mortalities among grower/finisher pigs may herald an outbreak of APP in a herd.3.On the other hand,signs may be limited to a drop in growth rate and an increase in grade two pleurisy lesions in slaughter pigs. 4.The disease surface in the Australia pig population during the first half of the 1980s and ten years later was regarded as one of the most costly and devastating diseases affecting the Australian pig industry.On the other hand,signs may be limited to a drop in growth rate and an increase in grade two pleurisy lesions in slaughter pigs. 

你是否同意与其他句子相比,第四句表达的是更总体话的信息?如果是那样的话,要做如下修改,把第四句移到段首。措辞上也做了微小改变以改善句子的含义。

Pleuropneumonia (APP) surface in the Australia pig population during the first half of the 1980s and ten years later was regarded as one of the most costly and devastating diseases affecting the Australian pig industry.It can present as a dramatic clinical disease or as a chronic,production limiting disease in pig herds.A sudden increase in  the number of sick and coughing pigs and a sharp rise in mortalities among grower/finisher pigs may herald an outbreak of APP in a herd.

策略3:把已经知道的信息放在新信息之前
      为了了解策略三的基本准则,首先仔细思考下面两个小段落。每一个小段落都包含万全一样的信息,但是顺序不同,判断哪一个更容易理解。
      VersionA:Clay particles have surfac areas which are many orders of magnitude greater  than silt or sand sized particles.The ability of soils to shrink when dried is controlled by the interactions of these clay surfaces with water and exchangeable cations.
      VersionB:Clay particles have surfac areas which are many orders of magnitude greater  than silt or sand sized particles.The interaction of these clay surfaces with water and exchangeable cations control the ability of soils to shrink when dried.
      读者通常都认为第二个版本更容易理解,下面我们将解释原因。当读者读每个版本中第二句时,他们已经了解r第一句中包含的所有信息,因此第一句、朴的所有信息都可以被看做已知信息。在第一个版本中,直到第二句的后半句读者才冉-次看到表示已知信息的词(clay surfaces),第二句的开头都是新信息,所以这个句子没有遵守已知信息在前新信息在后的原则,这样的结构会使这一段难于理解:在第二个版本中,信息的顺序遵循已知信息在前新信息在后的原则。

策略4:用句子的前7-9个单词建立句子之间的联系
      描述策略3中两个版本之间差异的另一种方式,与作者在下一句中(每个版本中的第二句)读到与已知信息相关联的词的多少有关。在第一个版本中,作者直到第16个词后才发现与上一句相关联的词,那就是单词“clay" 。然而,在第二个版本中,第5个单词就是上一句的关联词。把关联词放在句子的前7-9个单词之前将会强化论文的可读性,即读者更容易理解列出的信息。
     An outbreak of APP in a herd may be heralded by a sudden increase in the number  of sick and er/finisher pigs.

在这个版本中,第四个单词(APP)表示是已知信息,并且已知信息在新信息之前。用于改变句子中信息顺序的方法是把主动语态动词(may herald)变为被动语态动词(may be heralded)。这种方法对改变段落的流畅性通常是很有用的。我们认为,以这种方式提升文本的流畅性,是比不惜一切代价避免被动语态更重要的要考虑的因素,因此在写作指南中有时这是被推荐的写作方式。

策略5:尽可能在句子的前7-9个单词中包含动词和它的主语
      阅读下面两个例句,并思考它们是否容易理解。
      The definition of seed quality is very broad and encompasses different compons for different people.The quality and quantity of flour protein,dough mixing requirements and tolerance,dough handing properties and loaf volume potential are quality parameters of wheat seed for bread bakers.
      显然第二句要难理解一些,因为在读者在读到动词“are”之前,不得不读长度达19个单词的主句。常主语在前短动词在后的句子常常被称为是头重脚轻的句子。下面是对上面的例句重新编辑后的两个版本,在这两个版本中,第二个句子中的动词和主语放在前7-9个单词中,其他条目列在句子末尾(在句子中起的是新信息的作用)。
      Edited versionA:The definition of seed quality is very broad and encompasses different compons for different people.Quality parameters of wheat seed for  bread bakers are the quality and quantity of flour protein,dough mixing requirements and tolerance ,dough handling properties and load volume potential.
      Edited versionB:The definition of seed quality is very broad and encompasses different compons for different people.For bread bakers,quality parameters of wheat seed are the quality and quantity of flour protein,dough mixing requirements and tolerance ,dough handling properties and loaf volume potential.
      作为通用规则,如果要写一个细目清单,他应该出现在句子末尾。