关于dissertation methodology，我们平常将其称之为研究方法。国外要想获得学位证书，thesis或者dissertation的methodology是必不可少的。有的学生可能会写introduction部分和background部分，但是很多学生不知道怎么写methodology部分。其实methodology部分是dissertation（thesis）或者research paper最重要部分，因为这个章节，你要告诉读者你是如何写进行研究的以及又是如何通过研究得出结论的，从而增强文章观点的说服力。在methodology这个部分，你需要说明你为写这篇文章是如何进行数据和资料搜集的，以及搜集资料技术和方法。这意味着你需要对你进行的调查、数据发掘、采访及你所进行的实验进行解释。你还必须说明你搜集资料运用的一些方法是可行的，这样目的也是为了增加可信度。
1. Problem. The methodology typically follows your literature review, so for the purposes of clarity and regaining focus it is useful briefly to recap the central research questions of your dissertation. Define and explain the problems which you seek to address.
2. Approach. Give an overview of your approach to primary research in order to guide the reader and contextualise your methodology. By identifying all methodological aspects to which to will attend – rationale, justification, sampling issues, etc. – you can signal unambiguously to the reader that you fully understand the implications of thorough, astute methodology.
3. Reproducibility. The ability to reproduce the results of an experiment is a hallmark of proper scientific method; in the humanities also, reproducibility indicates greater credibility and usefulness. Provide a detailed description of your techniques, such that those wishing to challenge your position could, if they wished, reproduce the same research.
4. Precedence. Consider whether your research methodology is typical of comparable research projects within your particular subject area. A review of the relevant literature will doubtless find some comparable endeavours, in which case the adoption of those methodologies may lend authority to your approach.
5. Justification. It is absolutely essential that you provide sound reasons for the methods your have chosen to conduct your research. This aspect is particularly important when adopting a novel or non-standard methodology. Approaches at odds with comparable endeavours require considerable rigorous justification.
6. Rationale. No matter what type of research, there is almost always a number of methodological approaches available. In your rationale, critically evaluate alternate approaches in order to defend the methods you have finally chosen. Weigh up the pros and cons of all relevant alternatives, including your own choice.
7. Reliability and validity. Essential considerations in all types of research, issues of reliability and validity must be explicitly discussed. Many matters fall under this area, including accuracy, precision, sources of error and statistical significance.
8. Sampling. Questions concerning sampling techniques and sample size can be considered under reliability and validity, but are often important enough to be given special attention. The impact of sample size upon statistical significance of your results is an issue of such importance that you should be mindful of this when designing and writing up your methodology.
9. Appendix. Keep your methodology chapter focussed and lucidly written by appending indirectly relevant material to the end of your dissertation. Copies of questionnaires and other methodological material should usually be placed in the appendix.
10. Generalisation. Include a section in your methodology which directly addresses the question of how far data obtained through your approach can be generalised. Bear this issue in mind when designing your methodology too, as results with general significance outside of your direct data set will tend to increase the persuasiveness of your eventual findings.