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留学生论文写作必看老师“评语库”总汇

发表时间:2018-08-13

      留学生在论文写作中最容易出现错误的地方有:排版、标点、拼写、语法、衔接、主旨、逻辑、抄袭等等,不仅如此,指出文中的错误是不够的,还须解释说明为什么算错以及怎么样避免再错。本文梳理出了留学生论文常见的写作错误和常用排版技巧,权且算作批改学术英语写作的评语库,对于我们中国留学生而言,也可以将其视作Self-evaluation Checklist对照自查。

常见写作问题或技巧 
Problems or Skills
评语和建议 
Comments and Suggestions
未使用学术写作风格
You should use an academic writing style in this work. Academic writing is characterised by the use of academic words, academic structures, and academic conventions
文献中的话未能恰当Paraphrase
Paraphrasing or summarising a reference is more than changing several words in a sentence   and including it in your work. While there are no strict rules, you should   use a direct quotation if you are using more than 4 or 5 exact words from a source.
不关注文字细节
In academic writing it is important to attend to detail (e.g. correct capitalisation) as mistakes will erode your credibility. 
主观臆断
Academic writing is generally (but not always)    expressed using impersonal language that avoids the use of:
· personal pronouns e.g. "I", "we" , "our"
· personal judgements e.g. "I believe"
· emotive words e.g. "repulsive"
冗赘
It is usually a good idea to make your academic writing as concise as possible. You can often remove redundant words without changing the meaning of the sentence.
口语化表达
This is a colloquial expression and thus should be either placed in quotes or not used in academic writing.
抄袭
Plagiarism is a serious form of academic misconduct and there are serious consequences. You should make yourself aware of:
·   Plagiarism Explained
·   Examples
·   Avoiding Plagiarism
·   Detection and Consequences
·   Frequently-asked Questions
·   Additional Resources
引用文字与作者观点无关联
Before you include a quote you must clearly say how or why it relates to your argument. A series of disconnected quotations will erode the strength of your argument.
滥用反问句
It is generally best not to use too many rhetorical questions in academic writing. You should be providing the answers supported by examples and evidence. 
时态误用
Ensure that verb tense (past, present and future)  is consistent e.g. "My sister runs to work last Thursday"   should be "My sister ran to work last Thursday". 
信息来源不可靠
This may be an unreliable source to support your argument. More reliable sources will strengthen your argument and less reliable or dubious sources can weaken your argument.
使用第一人称,显得不够客观
It is best not to use first person or personal opinions in academic writing. 
语域不正式
This would be better expressed using formal, technical or   specialised language that is typically used in academic writing. Technical language is often more precise and concise. How could you state this in a more technical way?
字数不达标
Your paper (excluding appendices and the references) should be within 10% above or below the suggested word length. It is a good idea to use the Word count function in your word processor and list the word count on the assignment cover page.
小标题后加句号
Points in a list or headings are generally not sentences and thus do not need a full stop.
缩写词误用
Acronyms are always capitalised e.g. CD-ROM, MSN. Some have slipped into the language to the extend that this no longer applies e.g. Qantas
第一次使用缩略语未给出全称
You should spell out this abbreviation in full the first time it is used.
页面排版有误
Pages in the manuscript should be in the following order.
·   Title page: including, title, running head, author byline, institutional affiliation, and author note. This is page 1
·   Abstract: start on a new page and numbered 2
·   Text: start on a new page and numbered 3
·   References: start on a new page
·   Tables: start each on a new page
·   Figures: start each on a new page
·   Appendices: start each on a new page
不分段
You should use a blank line between paragraphs or indent first line of each paragraph so it is clear where the paragraph breaks are.
最终提交格式不正式
It is good to see the professional presentation of this assignment with a coverpage and table of contents based on styles.
封面缺失
It is generally worthwhile preparing a professional cover page that gives the name of the paper, the course, and your name. If you are given a word limit you should also include the number of words in the assignment (excluding appendices and references).
未使用列表呈现
Using bullets or numbered lists is one way of introducing a little visual variety into your presentation and it makes is easier to quickly scan the document and see the structure.
未启用表格自动宽度设定
It is generally better to allow Word to automatically set table and column widths and heights. If you set absolute width and height some text may be hidden depending on the viewer's computer and fonts.
语法和拼写错误
Please use the spelling checker and grammar checker in Word to identify possible problems. Right click on the red and green underlining in Word to identify possible grammar and spelling errors.
页眉、页脚、分页符
Please use headers, footers and page breaks in Word and this will mean that you will not have this type of problem.
打了很多空格而非使用标尺来进行段落首行缩进
It is best to use the margins within the Word ruler to control the indenting rather than add spaces or tabs to the start of the line.
小标题和下文分在两页显示
If you use PAGE BREAKS (INSERT > BREAK > PAGE BREAK)   and KEEP WITH NEXT (FORMAT > PARAGRAPH > LINE BREAKS > KEEP WITH   NEXT) in Word you will avoid these types of problems with pagination.
行距
In Word you should not press the "enter" key at the end of each line. To get double spacing use the FORMAT menu > PARAGRAPH > LINE SPACING
超链接
It is usually a good idea to make links clickable. In   Word you can do this by highlighting the text then INSERT > HYPERLINK or if the text is a fully formatted link starting with http:// you can just press space and the link will be automagically formed.
目录
If you use outline mode in Word (VIEW > OUTLINE) and headings you can get Word to automatically generate a Table of Contents (INSERT > REFERENCE > TABLES > TABLE OF CONTENTS) with page numbers and links.
分页符、分节符
Once you learn about page and section breaks in Word you   will not have this problem with things being on the wrong page. 
图文混排
There are two main ways to positional images in the text in Word.
The first anchors it to a position on the page and the second floats up and down as you add to delete text … the second way (inline) is generally best and you can set this by Right clicking the picture >  FORMAT PICTURE > POSITION >   INLINE.  This will stop the text and the picture being in on top of each other.
使用标尺
Use of Tabs on the ruler in Word and/or setting the first line indent will avoid these types of problems.
使用Tab键排版
It is generally better to use the TABS on the ruler or even a table (with or without the border showing) to align elements in this type of layout.
使用列表
Using   the numbered and bulleted list structure in Word will help to make the   structure of your ideas easier to see. These also add to the visual interest   of the page and make the text much easier to read if it is ever put online.
使用表格
Using a table (with the borders hidden or shown) is one way of laying out multicolumn page layout within Word or controlling where information is shown on the page.
字数统计
If you have been given a word limit it is a good idea to show the number of   words (excluding cover page, references, appendices) on the cover page
段落过长,未分段
There are many separate ideas in this paragraph and this   makes it more difficult for the reader. 
逻辑不通
The sentences in this paragraph are not logically ordered. Generally a topic sentence will be followed by sentences that elaborate or provide supporting evidence and end with a concluding sentence.
段落主旨不清晰
What is the main idea in this paragraph? The main idea should be in the topic sentence, which is generally the first sentence. After this, you can expand or support the idea with reference to the literature. Structuring your paragraphs in this way helps the reader to know what to expect and see where the augment is going.
段落太短
Avoid   breaking paragraphs where there is no natural division in the thought.   Successions of extremely short paragraphs tend to fragment ideas and one-sentence paragraphs should generally be avoided.
逗号的用法
Use a comma to separate items in a list of 3 or more items. e.g. remember apples, oranges, and bananas.
单引号、双引号嵌套
Use single quotes to signify the presence text that was quoted in the original quoted text
e.g. Smith (1999) found "the 'placebo effect',…"
双引号的用法
Use   double quote marks around text quoted directly from a source, to introduce an ironic comment, slang or coined expression, to surround the title if used in text, or mark materials used in a test.
句号的用法
Use   a period to complete a sentence, with Latin abbreviations (e.g. a.m.), or initials. Do not use periods with capital letter   abbreviations, web addresses, or measurement abbreviations.
缩略符的用法
This is an incorrect use of an apostrophe, which is used   to:
1. to form possessives of nouns
2. to show the omission of letters
3. to indicate missing letters in a contraction e.g. "I'm" for "I am"
4. to indicate certain plurals of lowercase letters e.g. "mind your p's and q's"
误用冒号、分号
You have incorrectly used a colon or semi-colon here. Colons are used to introduce lists and semi-colons are used to before connective words such as "therefore".
误用逗号
You   have incorrectly used a comma here.
标点错误
This is an incorrect use of a <?insert the punctuation mark here?>. The Purdue Online Writing Lab has a good explanation of these issues at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/566/01/
句子不完整
This is a sentence fragment because it lacks an essential part of the sentence.   Sentence fragment can usefully be fixed by changing the punctuation. How can this be rewritten to be a complete sentence. See the section starting at http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/writing/2a.html   for more information on sentence fragments. How could you rewrite this sentence?
不断句
This is a run-on sentence because it contains more than one idea. Run on sentences can generally be repaired by inserting full stops. How can this be rewritten to avoid the run-on sentence. See the section starting at http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/writing/2b.html   for more information. How could you rewrite this sentence?
主谓不一致
The subject and verb in this sentence do not agree in number or person.
校对
Proofreading is an important stage of assignment preparation. When you proof your work you   should check for the following issues:
1. structural (structure checklist for an essay)
2. grammatical
3. technical
essay structure
To slow yourself down when proofreading, place a ruler under each line and read   the text line by line. Look for the slips you know you often make.
段落间无衔接
How do these two paragraphs relate? Generally you should tell the reader what the connection is and then develop that connection throughout the paragraph.
无结尾段
Every essay needs an ending to convey a sense of closure. Your conclusion does not necessarily have to summarize your entire essay; it should, however, reinforce the point you are making in your essay and perhaps place your   argument into a larger perspective. Be sure to signal the beginning of your conclusion, and beware of introducing a totally new point in your conclusion.
篇章结构混乱
The organisation of your paper is not clearly organised to help the reader. Use a clear pattern of organization. Consider such strategies as stating a thesis and then giving a number of supporting arguments; stating a problem and then examining one or more possible   solutions; stating a course of action and weighing its advantages and disadvantages; or stating and then refuting a series of arguments against your thesis.

There are many acceptable patterns; just be sure that the one you choose suits your material, groups related ideas together, and gives your readers the information they need to understand every point as they come to it.
逻辑不通
The ideas in your paper should be organised into a clear, logical and coherent structure.  This clear logical sequence controls how paragraphs are ordered in paper. 
与主旨无关
It is not clear how this is related to the thesis of your paper. It is not enough that all your ideas and arguments are relevant to your general subject. The reader must understand how they clarify and support your overall argument or thesis.
排序
It is not clear why you have ordered the paragraphs in this way.
偏见
Avoid bias in language concerning race, disability or sexuality.
表达冗赘
Where possible write as concisely as possible. Short sentences are easier to understand than long sentences and remove redundant words whenever possible.
用词不准
Make sure that your writing is precise and clear by choosing words carefully and avoiding unnecessary jargon.