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《纽约时报》:7 Ways to Learn Argument-Writing

发表时间:2018-08-01 17:30:46

   议论文写作是整合,也是分类;是沉思,也是表白;是交流,也是自省。
   写作者可以通过写作来确认自己的存在,摸索自身的身份。同时,写作者也可以改变他人理解世界的方法,影响公众的态度,引发读者思考并激励读者行动。
   总言之,议论文写作是个漫长的认识世界和认识自己的过程,如何形成良好的思维与写作习惯呢?《纽约时报》的写作专家们给我们提供了极其专业且高效可行的写作建议,一起行动起来吧~

7 Ways to Learn Argument-Writing 

      1. Explore the role of a newspaper opinion section.

      How would you describe the differences between the news sections of a newspaper and the opinion section? What do they have in common? How do they differ? Where else in newspapers are opinions — for instance, in the form of reviews or personal essays — often published?

      好的写作者首先一定是好的阅读者~
      那么问题来了,读什么?
      NY Times的建议:
      读媒体刊物中带有独特见解的评论和观点文章~
      资深评论员针对最热门的社会问题发表看法,一定犀利洞见,让人茅塞顿开~
      吸纳他人观点,树立个人态度
      是写作观点的第一步~

      2. Know the difference between fact and opinion.

      Read an Op-Ed and underline the facts and circle the opinion statements you find, or, read a news report and an opinion piece on the same topic and look for the differences. 

      Op-ed (opinion editorial), 以及news report是新闻的两大组成部分。通常Op-ed是针对事件发表观点,而news report只是客观事实报道。

      对比阅读这两种文字,试着找到关于同一事件的事实和观点,分清这两者,并建立两者关联,再尝试从事件中提炼观点。

      这一方法也可以解决很多英文学习者在写作过程中的一个通病:全文的观点句没有观点,而只陈述事实。

      The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable. 也就是,议论文的篇题观点句必须能引起争议。

      而我们在议论文写作过程中混淆“观点”与“事实”的情况太多了~比如,很多学生在写环境问题的时候,将“工业污染会污染环境”这样的客观事实做为观点进行论证~文章缺乏独立观点,自然无法深度展开~

      3. Analyze the use of rhetorical strategies like ethos, pathos and logos.

      Ethics, emotion, logic — it’s credible and worthy, it appeals to me, it makes sense. lxws.net

     议论文是否能让读者心悦诚服,取决于这三要素:ethos, pathos, logos, 即:(伦理)可信度, 情感,逻辑。

      细言之,ethos指作者本身的可信度,作者需要有人格魅力,正面形象和可信度。素不相识的别人何以相信你说的话呢?完全取决于“可信度”这第一印象。大众都会倾向于信任学术权威,德高望重者,或对议论之事有亲身经历的人。所以在写作时,创造美好的第一印象,让读者觉得你的文章值得读,这一点至关重要。

      Pathos呢,源自希腊语,意为情感,大概等同于emotion。想让读者买账,以情打动读者,是最直接有效的办法了~比如,写保护环境类的文章时,描写环境污染受害者的遭遇,就会大大增加文章的“感情分”。

      理性(Logos)就是用逻辑进行推理说服,这是议论文三要素中最重要的一项。文章阐述问题的逻辑思维是否清晰,是否有条理,有重点,并且利用客观的事实论据说话。

      阅读的时候,仔细留意文章是否在这三方面说服了你,写作的时候,反思自己是否做到了在这三方面说服读者~

      4.  Identify claims and evidence.

      Young readers are now expected to be able to identify claims in opinion pieces and find the evidence to support them.

      阅读过程中,要善于找到作者想论证的观点,以及作者用来支持观点的论据,更重要的是,还要学会判断论据的类型,是实例,还是数据,是权威说辞,还是道听途说,并逐渐学会评估论据的合理性~

      5. Subscribe a writing column/opinion-ed

      We have heard from many teachers over the years that a favorite assignment is to have students each “adopt” a different newspaper columnist, and follow him or her over weeks or months, noting the issues they focus on and the rhetorical strategies they use to make their cases. Throughout, students can compare what they find — and, of course, apply what they learn to their own writing.

      长期订阅你喜欢且认可的专栏作家,每逢社会热点,看看他/她的观点是否能够启迪你的深度思考,也要学习他/她使用的文章论述策略。

      6. Explore visual argument-making via Times Op-Art, editorial cartoons and Op-Docs.

      The New York Times regularly commissions artists and cartoonists to create work to accompany Opinion pieces. How do illustrations like the one above add meaning to a text, while grabbing readers’ attention at the same time? What can we infer about the argument being made in an Op-Ed article by looking at the illustration alone?

     You can watch a short film and see how the filmmakers used evidence to support an argument, including expert testimony, facts, interview, imagery, statistics and anecdotes.

      难以逃脱主观意识束缚的我们,总是试图说服对方,因而说理无处不在,而说理的形式不仅限于文字。图像,漫画,视频,影片,都可以表达观点。用非文字的视觉艺术方法表达观点,这也就是所谓的“op-art",也就是”opinion art". 

      除了从阅读文章中提炼观点与总结论证方法之外,还可以看广告,看图片,看电影,看视频,看纪录片,去推测其传达的讯息是什么,其论证主题的手段是什么。

      7. Use interesting writing prompts to practice making arguments for a real audience.

      -Does technology make us more alone? 
      -Is social media making us more narcissistic?
      -Does Technology Make Us More Alone?
      -Is It Ethical to Eat Meat?
      -Are Some Youth Sports Too Intense?
      -Does Reality TV Promote Dangerous Stereotypes?
      Find topics like technology, politics, sports, education, health, parenting, science and pop culture.

      多找话题,进行思维拓展训练,这是写作最重要的一步啦~
      写作话题都是人生话题,技术,体育,教育,健康,科学,文化等。
      多积累有趣的话题,树立个人观点,个人观点萌芽,才会有论证的欲望~写作才真正开始呢~