in addition另外, furthermore此外, again, also, besides, moreover此外 , similarly, finally最后
in the same way, likewise同样地, similarly, equally, in comparison比较起来, just as同样地
whereas然而, in contrast与此相反, on the other hand, instead同样, however然而, nevertheless然而, unlike, even though即使, on the contrary, while
4.因果(Cause and effect)
because, because of, for, since, due to, owing to, thanks to, as a result(of), accordingly, hence, so, thus
certainly, above all, indeed, of course, surely, actually, as a matter of fact, chiefly, especially, primarily, in particular, undoubtedly, absolutely, most imprtant
although, though, after all, in spite of, nevertheless, still, provided, while it is true....
for example, for instance, that is, namely, such as, in other words, in this case, by way of illustration.
to sum up, to conclude, in a word, in short, in brief, all in all, in all, to put it in a nutshell, in summary
therefore, as a result(of), consequently, accordingly, so, otherwise
10.时间和空间(Time and space)
afterward, after, first, later, then, soon, outside, near, beyound, above, below, on the right(left), in the middle, opposite, in front of
A proverb says...... At present.......
As the proverb says.... Currently.....
Generally speaking, .... Now,....
In general, ..... On the Whole....
It is clear that.... Recently.....
It is often said that.... Without doubt, .......
First(of all), ...... Moreover, .........
Firstly, ............ No one can deny that....
In the first place, .........
To begin with, ......... Of course, .........
Also, ....... Similarly,.........
At the same time...... Therefore, we should realize that.....
Certainly...... There is no doubt that.......
In addition,..... What`s more, ..........
In fact........ It can be easily proved that...
But... Still, ......
But the problem is not so simple...
There is a certain amount of truth in this, but we still have a problem with regard to.......
....... To our surprise,..........
Nevertheless, ........ Unfortunately.......
On the other hand, .......
Yet difference will be found and that is why I feel that........
Others may find this to be true, but I do not. I think.....
Above all, In brief, ........
Accordingly, ..... In conclusion, ........
All in all, .......
In other words, it is hard to escape the conclusion that........
As a consequence, ......... In short, .........
As I have shown/said/stated/.... In sum, ........
In summary, ....... As has been noted, ....
Obviously, ......... By so doing, .....
On the whole, ..... Consequently, ........
Presumably, ....... Eventually, .........
To conclude, ...... Finally, ........
To sum up, ..... In a word, ......
To summarize, ......
2.positive, favorable, rosy (美好的)，promising(有希望的)，perfect, pleasurable , excellent, outstanding, superior替换good
3。dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse, ill (有害的)替换bad如果bad做表语，可以有be less impressive替换
eg： An army of college students indulge themselves in playing games, enjoying romance with girls/boys or killing time passively in their dorms. When it approaches to graduation ,as a result, they find their academic records are less impressive.
4.(an army of, an ocean of, a sea of, a multitude of ,a host of, many, if not most)替换many.
注：用many, if not most 一定要小心，many后一定要有词。
eg:Many individuals, if not most, harbor the idea that….同理 用most, if not all ,替换most.
5.a slice of, quiet a few , several替换some
6.harbor the idea that, take the attitude that,hold the view that, it is widely shared that,
it is universally acknowledged that替换think(因为是书面语，所以要加that)
7.affair ,business ,matter替换thing
9.reap huge fruits替换get many benefits )
10.for my part ,from my own perspective替换in my opinion
11.Increasing(ly),growing替换more and more( 注意没有growingly这种形式。所以当修饰名词时用increasing/growing.修饰形容词，副词用increasingly.
eg：sth has gained growing popularity.Sth is increasingly popular with the advancement of sth.
12.little if anything, 或little or nothing替换hardly
16.hardly necessary, hardly inevitable ... 替换 unnecessary, avoidable
17.sth appeals to sb, sth exerts a tremendous fascination on sb 替换sb take interest in / sb. be interested in
18.capture one’s attention替换attract one’s attention.
20.be indicative of ,be suggestive of ,be fearful of代 indicate, suggest ,fear
21.give rise to, lead to, result in, trigger 考试大替换cause.
22. There are several reasons behind sth替换..reasons for sth
24.pour attention into替换pay attention to
25.bear in mind that替换remember
26. enjoy, possess 替换have(注意process是过程的意思)
27. interaction 替换communication
28.frown on sth替换be against , disagree with sth
29.to name only a few, as an example替换 for example, for instance
30. next to / virtually impossible,替换nearly / almost impossible
琐碎的，不重要的，微不足道的--trivial frivolous superficial trifling worthless
轻视，贬抑--disdain despise reject scorn contempt derogate depreciate
嘲笑，嘲讽--deride mock ridicule scorn sneer quip flout hack persiflage taunt
容易冲动的--impetuous hasty headlong rash brash passionate precipitate reckless
理论家，空谈家--doctrinaire pedant theorist
残忍的，野蛮的--ferocious bloodthirsty brutal cruel fierce vicious wild atrocious
邪恶的，有害的，致命的--sinister diabolic corrupt forbidding pernicious virulent
秘密的，偷偷的--cryptic furtive covert covered hidden hideaway
避难所--asylum haven home institution refuge shelter harbor
节约的--frugal prudent saving economical sparing thrifty abstemious stint
浪费的，挥霍的--prodigal extravagant lavish spendthrift wasteful squander
浪费时间，逗弄，嬉戏--dally dawdle delay lag linger loiter
祝福，感谢--benediction bless bliss blessing
欺骗，诈骗--deceive beguile dupe hoax mislead trick bamboozle cheat delude
逃避工作--malinger goldbrick relinquish
揭密，泄漏--uncover disclose expose open reveal unmask
掠夺，抢劫--loot predate rob pillage plunder sack spoil despoil burglarize angle
诽谤，中伤--aspersion slander derogate calumniate libel discredit denigrate
赞扬--extol compliment glorify laud praise commend acclaim eulogize eucomium
颂词，表扬--laud eulogy ode hymn
反对，不赞成--demur deprecate dissent dissident
否认，拒绝，驳斥-- contradict dispute refute renounce naysay reject repudiate gainsay
哀悼，后悔，哀叹--deplore bemoan regret lament dirge bewail repent
驱逐，出境--deport banish expel expatriate evict exile oust exclude ostracism
居住--dwell abide reside inhabit occupy
夸张，吹牛--vaunt exaggerate bombast overstate full-blown overdo magnify amplify
傲慢，专横--hauteur swagger imperious arrogance overbearing preemptory scurrilous
contemptuous haughty insolent arbitrary
活泼的--vivacious active animated brisk dynamic energetic exuberant gay lively
恶作剧的，顽皮的--prankish naughty impish elfish devilish mischievous puckish
笨拙的，麻烦的--cumbersome bulky burdensome clumsy troublesome unmanageable
bothersome gauche antic awkward ham-handed
暴乱，骚动--agitation bother commotion fret stir riot squall
大风暴--tempest violence storm
大混乱，大灾难--havoc calamity catastrophe misfortune disaster mishap tragedy
巨大的，惊人的--prodigious colossal enormous extraordinary gigantic huge
immense mammoth vast tremendous
例外的，奇特的，罕见的--exceptional remarkable stupendous
奇妙的，不可思议的--miraculous wonderful marvelous
大胆的，莽撞的--audacious bold brave daring gallant heroic valiant prowess
多产的，丰富的，繁茂的--prolific fecund fertile fruitful productive flourish opulent well-off
munificent prosperous affluent plentiful abundant
贫困的，贫乏的，没钱的--indigent penurious penury impecunious improvished
needy down-and -out penniless wretched destitute bankrupt
手铐，束缚--shackle handcuff manacle chain bind fetter
神秘的--mysterious esoteric occult
取消，撤销，废除--resciss repeal nullify abolish quash withdraw abrogate overrule
abolish annul cancel invalidate recall rescind revoke nullify retract
使衰弱，使衰老--enfeeble enervate debilitate weaken vitiate
虚弱的，衰老的--feckless flaccid flagging languid effete
耻辱，污名--tarnish stain slur disgrace brand blemish stigma discredit humiliation
持久的--everlasting perpetual permanent endurable abiding eternal
短暂的--momentary temporary transient ephemeral evanescent provisional
谨慎的，警觉的--wary chary vigilant discreet considerate cautious prudent
责备，指责，咒骂--accuse blame censure charge denounce impugn impeach indict invective
execrate condemn criticize reproach reprove disapprove upbraid vituperate
reprove injure reprehend rebuke inveigh diatribe abuse lambaste obloquy
免责，确定无罪--exempt exonerate exculpate invulnerable absolve
妨碍，阻挠--filibuster encumber impede hamper hinder stymie curb obstruct
restrain retard hamper thwart foil clog check occlude
促进，帮助--precipitate accelerate advance facilitate hasten hurry promote
quicken speed-up assist abet press
挑剔的--meticulous nitpick finicky finical exacting censoring fussy punctilious prudish
fastidious choosy critical particular selective pernickety prissy
苛责，吹毛求疵的--carp cavil pick criticize quibble
迅速发展--prosper flourish thrive boom develop grow increase mushroom sprout
镇压--quell appease extinguish hush lull mollify pacify quiet smother
stifle subdue suppress squelsh foil slake quench
刺激--rouse arouse awaken excite foment anger inflame kindle move pique
provoke disquiet incense whet stimulate stir instigate galvanize vex rile
roil annoy aggravate disturb irritate
放纵--indulge coddle pamper pander-to mollycoddle humor cater dote-on
sybarite voluptuary wanton spoil
笨蛋，傻瓜--dolt numskull dunce blockhead lout idiocy idiot cretin half-wit
fool dullard imbecile moron simpleton prat oaf slouch dull-head
愚蠢--idiocy stupidity absurdity madness lunacy folly
愚蠢的--crass doltish oafish imbecilic moronic fatuous vacuous
伪造，掺假--adulterate forge counterfeit falsify bogus
真实的，坦诚的，诚实的--candid candor frank fair genuine open pure
trustworthy trustful veracious virtuous
减弱，降低--clam appease allay alleviate ease lessen moderate pacify
relieve attenuate abate
宁静的，平静的--quiet calm serene peaceful silent still tranquil pacific
冷静的，不为所动的--phlegmatic impassive apathetic composed indifferent
reserved unemotional unfeeling unmoved
新手，生手--apprentice neophyte novice typo greenhorn freshman uninitiated verdant
预言，预知，预告--presage predict forecast foresee foretell portend portent
prophesy anticipate omen divine soothsay augur forebode presentiment
犹豫，停滞--balk boggle scruple demur falter flounder pause vacillate waver hesitate
消除，除去--efface erase obliterate raze eliminate exterminate
闲扯，瞎说--drivel prate babble chat chatter gossip blab prattle babble gabble jabber
怀脾气的，暴躁的--cantankerous cranky irascible irritable quarrelsome
choleric apoplectic churlish petulant raspy
蹒跚，摇晃，跌倒--stagger lurch reel sway tumble waver flounder dodder
固执的--headstrong obstinate stubborn willful firm dogged adamant
bullheaded pigheaded inflexible tenacious rigid stiff unbending unyielding
dour bigoted recalcitrant bigotry tenacity pertinacity
温顺的，驯服的--tame obedient meek gentle docile tame bonhomie
效忠，尊敬--homage adoration deference esteem honor respect reverence
忠诚--fidelity allegiance attachment devotion faith fealty loyalty
精确，准确--accuracy exactness exactitude precision
简洁的--concise terse curt brief succinct compendious condensed compressed laconic
大纲，摘要--précis compendium compendia abstract summary synopsis
扼要，说明--recapitulate summarize outline
仁慈的，温和的，宽大的--lenient benefic beneficent benign benignant clement
indulgent merciful mild tolerant
陈旧的--antiquated banal shopworn antique moth-eaten old-fashioned cliché
dated outmoded hackneyed time-worn threadbare trite immemorial obsolete
粗略的，大概的,粗糙的--schematic cursory coarse crude rough vulgar churlish husky
吸引人的--intriguing alluring appealing attractive bewitching captivate
charming enchanting enticing fascinating interesting inviting tantalizing
tempting thrilling winning ingratiating
优势，主权，权势--clout ascendance ascendancy authority preponderance
荒谬的，愚蠢的，可笑的--preposterous absurd silly ridiculous senseless nonsensical
合理的--logical national reasonable sound
一致的，相等的，同样的--congruent tantamount commensurate
和睦，一致--concord harmony agreement rapport conformity
分配，给予，分发--allocate allot apportion assign distribute divide
相称的，合适的，应得的--condign becoming fitting proper suitable appropriate
微不足道的--trivial frivolous measly paltry superficial trifling worthless
1. In this paper, we focus on the need for
2. This paper proceeds as follow.
3. The structure of the paper is as follows.
4. In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related concepts
5. To begin with we will provide a brief background on the
1. This will be followed by a description of the fuzzy nature of the problem and a detailed presentation of how the required membership functions are defined.
2. Details on xx and xx are discussed in later sections.
3. In the next section, after a statement of the basic problem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated: first, an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzy service time with stochastic arrivals and non fuzzy service rule is studied; lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered.
1. This review is followed by an introduction.
2. A brief summary of some of the relevant concepts in xxx and xxx is presented in Section 2.
3. In the next section, a brief review of the .... is given.
4. In the next section, a short review of ... is given with special regard to ...
5. Section 2 reviews relevant research related to xx.
6. Section 1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for a methodology of action, while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by the complexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibility methods.
1. Section 1 defines the notion of robustness, and argues for its importance.
2. Section 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLC decision making logic.
3. Section 2 gives the background of the problem which includes xxx
4. Section 2 discusses some problems with and approaches to, natural language understanding.
5. Section 2 explains how flexibility which often ... can be expressed in terms of fuzzy time window
6. Section 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theory that are used in the ...
7. Section 3 describes the system itself in a general way, including the ….. and also discusses how to evaluate systemperformance.
8. Section 3 describes a new measure of xx.
9. Section 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibility theory in the analysis of xx.
10. Section 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulation of human decision.
11. Section 3, is developed to the modeling and processing of fuzzy decision rules
12. The main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3 while Section 4 describes the xx strategies.
13. Section 3 and 4 show experimental studies for verifying the proposed model.
14. Section 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set based approach to cost variance investigation.
15. Section 4 gives a specific example of xxx.
16. Section 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzy model of memory process.
17. Section 4 contains a discussion of the implication of the results of Section 2 and 3.
18. Section 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysis of xx and illustrate its use on experimental data.
19. Section 5 presents the primary results of the paper: a fuzzy set model ..
20. Section 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideas for further work.
21. Section 6 illustrates the model with an example.
22. Various ways of justification and the reasons for their choice are discussed very briefly in Section 2.
23. In Section 2 are presented the block diagram expression of a whole model of human DM system
24. In Section 2 we shall list a collection of basic assumptions which a ... scheme must satisfy.
25. In Section 2 of this paper, we present representation and uniqueness theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when the domain of discourse is order dense.
26. In Section 3, we describe the preliminary results of an empirical study currently in progress to verify the measurement model and to construct membership functions.
27. In Section 5 is analyzed the inference process through the two kinds of inference experiments...ThisSection
1. In this section, the characteristics and environment under which MRP is designed are described.
2. We will provide in this section basic terminologies and notations which are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results.Next Section
2. The next section describes the mathematics that goes into the computer implementation of such fuzzy logic statements.
3. However, it is cumbersome for this purpose and in practical applications the formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussed in the next section.
4. The three components will be described in the next two section, and an example of xx analysis of a computer information system will then illustrate their use.
5. We can interpret the results of Experiments I and II as in the following sections.
6. The next section summarizes the method in a from that is useful for arguments based on xx
1. This paper concludes with a discussion of future research consideration in section 5.
2. Section 5 summarizes the results of this investigation.
3. Section 5 gives the conclusions and future directions of research.
4. Section 7 provides a summary and a discussion of some extensions of the paper.
5. Finally, conclusions and future work are summarized
6. The basic questions posed above are then discussed and conclusions are drawn.
7. Section 7 is the conclusion of the paper.
Chapter 0. Abstract
1. A basic problem in the design of xx is presented by the choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables.
2. This paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based on fuzzy mathematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.
3. This paper describes a system for the analysis of the xx.
4. The method involves the construction of xx from fuzzy relations.
5. The procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reach a decision.
6. The technique used is to employ a newly developed and versatile xx algorithm.
7. The usefulness of xx is also considered.
8. A brief methodology used in xx is discussed.
9. The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.
10. A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzy matrices.
11. Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce a xx are presented and justified.
12. The use of the method is discussed and an example is given.
13. Results of an experimental applications of this xx analysis procedure are given to illustrate the proposed technique.
14. This paper analyses problems in
15. This paper outlines the functions carried out by ...
16. This paper includes an illustration of the ...
17. This paper provides an overview and information useful for approaching
18. Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterion function by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives are evaluated.
19. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xx
20. Our proposed model is verified through experimental study.
21. The experimental results reveal interesting examples of fuzzy phases of: xx, xx
22. The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, and xx are likewise represented by linguistic variables.
23. A didactic example is included to illustrate the computational procedure
Chapter 1. Introduction
1. Over the course of the past 30 years, .. has emerged form intuitive
2. Technological revolutions have recently hit the industrial world
3. The advent of ... systems for has had a significant impact on the
4. The development of ... is explored
5. During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets has developed in a variety of directions
6.The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively in recent years
7. There has been a turning point in ... methodology in accordance with the advent of ...
8. A major concern in ... today is to continue to improve...
9. A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena.
10. At the time of this writing, there is still no standard way of xx
11. Although a lot of effort is being spent on improving these weaknesses, the efficient and effective method
has yet to be developed.
12. The pioneer work can be traced to xx .
13. To date, none of the methods developed is perfect and all are far from ready to be used in commercial systems.
Objective / Goal / Purpose
1. The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined as follows:
2. The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non experts to utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, and to provide intelligent, computer aided instruction for xxx.
3. The paper concerns the development of a xx
4. The scope of this research lies in
5. The main theme of the paper is the application of rule based decision making.
6. These objectives are to be met with such thoroughness and confidence as to permit ...
7. The objectives of the ... operations study are as follows:
8. The primary purpose/consideration/objective of
9. The ultimate goal of this concept is to provide
10. The main objective of such a ... system is to
11. The aim of this paper is to provide methods to construct such probability distribution.
12. In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meet the following requirements:
13. In order to take advantage of their similarity
14. more research is still required before final goal of ... can be completed
15. In this trial, the objective is to generate...
16. for the sake of concentrating on ... research issues
17. A major goal of this report is to extend the utilization of a recently developed procedure for the xx.
18. For an illustrative purpose, four well known OR problems are studied in presence of fuzzy data: xx.
19. A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approaches and strategies for structuring ..methods
20. This illustration points out the need to specify
21. The ultimate goal is both descriptive and prescriptive.
22. Chapter 2. Literature Review
23. A wealth of information is to be found in the statistics literature, for example, regarding xx
24. A considerable amount of research has been done .. during the last decade
25. A great number of studies report on the treatment of uncertainties associated with xx.
26. There is considerable amount of literature on planning
27. However, these studies do not provide much attention to uncertainty in xx.
28. Since then, the subject has been extensively explored and it is still under investigation as well in methodological aspects as in concrete applications.
29. Many research studies have been carried out on this topic.
30. Problem of xx draws recently more and more attention of system analysis.
31. Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in the development of
32. Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield to this design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.
33. Most of the methods developed so far are deterministic and /or probabilistic in nature.
34. The central issue in all these studies is to
35. The problem of xx has been studied by other investigators, however, these studies have been based upon classical statistical approaches.
36. Applied ... techniques to
37. Characterized the ... system as
38. Developed an algorithm to
39. Developed a system called ... which
40. Uses an iterative algorithm to deduce
41. Emphasized the need to
42. Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology
43. A comprehensive study of the... has been undertaken
44. Much work has been reported recently in these filed
45. Proposed/Presented/State that/Described/Illustrated/Indicated/Has shown / showed/Address/Highlights
46. Point out that the problem of
47. A study on ...was done / developed by 
48. Previous work, such as  and , deal only with
49. The approach taken by  is
50. The system developed by  consists
51. A paper relevant to this research was published by 
52. 's model requires consideration of...
53. ' model draws attention to evolution in human development
54. 's model focuses on...
55. Little research has been conducted in applying ... to
56. The published information that is relevant to this research...
57. This study further shows that
58. Their work is based on the principle of
59. More history of ... can be found in xx et al. .
60. Studies have been completed to established
61. The ...studies indicated that
62. Though application of xx in the filed of xx has proliferated in recent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, is lacking.
Problem / Issue / Question
63. Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such as manufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. They tend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects.
64. Remedy / solve / alleviate these problems
67. ... is a difficult problem, yet to be adequately resolved
68. Two major problems have yet to be addressed
69. An unanswered question
70. This problem in essence involves using x to obtain a solution.
71. An additional research issue to be tackled is ....
72. Some important issues in developing a ... system are discussed
73. The three prime issues can be summarized:
74. The situation leads to the problem of how to determine the ...
75. There have been many attempts to
76. It is expected to be serious barrier to
77. It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for a complex