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发表时间:2018-03-05 10:10:54





(often an introductory paragraph)

1.What do we currently know about the research topic?
2.What type of study are you conducting (descriptive, analytical, comparative, interventional, observational, etc.)?
3.What variables will you use, and which subjects will be exposed to which variables?
4.How often and when will the data be collected?
5.How can you control all the factors that might affect prediction models and outcomes?
6.Do you have to adjust design because of some feasibility issues? If so, what factors?

实验对象 (selection criteria and methods)

1.Ethical considerations (all animal or human studies must discuss factors like ethics committee approval of research protocol, informed consent of human subjects, etc.
2.Study setting (time, place, etc.), where applicable.
3.For living subjects (humans and animals): demographic and clinical conditions, gender, weight, species, age, special characteristics, living conditions, etc.
4.Any preparations of subjects made before starting experiments.
5.Sampling method, including target population, sampling frame, instruments used, and any stratification, clustering or weighting.
6.Recruitment method and its effectiveness, including profiles of any subjects that refused (where applicable).
7.For comparative studies: group allocation and randomization procedures.
8.Follow-up procedures for longitudinal studies.

资料搜集 (criteria and methods)

1.Variables measured (identify only the key predictors and all outcomes of those variables).
2.Methods and instruments used to collect data (include information such as an instrument’s manufacturer and model, calibration procedures, and other information necessary to allow others to reproduce your experimental results).
3.Bias controls (e.g., blinding procedures).


1.Descriptive statistics (e.g., means, medians, standard deviations, etc.).
2.Inferential methods (include confidence intervals, hypothetical testing methods, and regression models or other modeling procedures used).
3.Methods used to address confounding observational studies.
4.Interim analysis methods.
5.Adjustments made to sampling methods and weighting procedures.
6.Missing data.
7.Sample size.
8.Power determination.
9.Software used.

      下面是一些Methodology写作Dos and Don’ts,大家可以参考:
      · Methodology部分写作是要使用过去式 
      · 不要混合研究结果和研究过程!流程只能在研究方法中出现。
      · Methodology部分不要出现冗长的解释和背景资讯
      · 只涵盖重现研究结果时,所需的必要资讯,将流程内容简化。
      · 提供精确的测量内容,并公开任何的测量误差。
      · 不需要重申已经发表过的研究方法内容,你可以使用文献来指出可以在哪里找到这些研究方法内容,你只需要写出哪些是在既有的研究方法外所新增的内容或变量。