|stating information that is not “common knowledge”||
11[use relevant style guide’s in-text citation format]
2.As [Author] indicated/ stated/ discovered
3.According to [Author],
1.As Smith indicated in a 2010 study . . .
2.According to Marks and Peters . . .
|drawing conclusions, making inferences, or suggesting implications based on specific data||
2.as evidenced/ suggested/ 3.indicated by
5.can be seen/ observed when
6.as seen in
7.which is made apparent when
8.is demonstrated by/ through/ when
1.The strong negative correlation suggests that . . .
2.As evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by their enlarged adrenal glands, patients with . . .
3.Based on self-reported survey results . . .
4.This phenomenon can be seen/ observed when wind speeds exceed . . .
5.As seen in the high recurrence rates of . . .
6.The causal link between A and B, which is made apparent when B triggers . . .
7.The efficacy of chocolate as a cure for unhappiness is demonstrated by survey results highlighted in . . .
8.This conclusion hinges on . . .
|clarifying a prior statement||
3.by way of illustration
4.as an example
6.to explain further
8.to be specific
10.in other words,
1.This occurrence is rare. For example, only one in twenty . . .
2.It is unlikely that current population growth rates are sustainable. For instance, several major coastal cities are already suffering from . . .
3.By way of illustration, less than 20% of new matriculants feel prepared for . . .
4.As an example, when a country faces economic recession, polls indicate that over 80% of the population supports . . .
5.To clarify, not all government-funded facilities provide . . .
6.To explain further, large doses of Agent O can trigger . . .
7.Millennials prefer flexible work conditions, namely the ability to work remotely.
8.To be specific, bull markets can . . .
9.That is, significant and sudden drops in temperature can . . .
10.In other words, short bursts of high-intensity ultrasound can . . .
|identifying representative examples of a category||
1.for example/ instance
4.one/ another example
8.an example being
*NOTE: “such as” and “like” have two different uses. “Such as” introduces a specific example that is part of a category. “Like” suggests the listed items are similar to, but not included in, the topic discussed.
1.Typhoons are considered acts of God, for example/ instance.
2.The island is home to many native carnivorous plants, such as Venus flytraps.
3.The only known bioluminescent vertebrates are fish (e.g. the anglerfish and lantern fish).
4.One/ another example of this exception is . . .
5.I prefer outdoor sports like mountain climbing because they allow me to enjoy nature while exercising.
6.All mammals, excluding humans, stop drinking milk at a young age.
7.All stars, including our sun, . . .
8.Hawks feast on rodents, an example being . . .
1.in a similar case
2.unlike the case of
3.in the same way
4.as a case in point
5.in a typical situation
6.in a normal scenario
1.In a similar case, a male patient with arthritis . . .
2.Unlike a single-blind study, a double-blind study reduces the risk of observer bias.
3.Redundancy and wordiness can be reduced in the same way: through careful editing.
4.As a case in point, let’s look at the situation in which . . .
5.In a typical situation, marsupials would . . .
6.In a normal scenario, cortisol suppressant effects . . .
|emphasizing a point by highlighting a specific situation||
6.as a case in point
1.Nocturnal marsupials, for example, have . . .
2.Indeed, since the World Health Organization declared an end to the Ebola outbreak in the 3.Democratic Republic of the Congo . . .
4.Ice-free habitats around Antarctica, in fact, have . . .
5.High carbon steel alloys, notably, undergo a transformation when . . .
6.Markedly, the deserts irregular rainfall levels have . . .
7.As a case in point, the last known male northern white rhinoceros . . .