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波士顿代写巧用"三明治引用"让论文引用更漂亮

发表时间:2017-10-27 14:14:53

波士顿代写
      无论是分析(analyze) primary source (文学、历史课中常用到的文本分析)还是 secondary source (社科类学科中常用到),可能都会要去引用别人的观点。如果是别人的观点,无论你是直接引用(加双引号)还是间接引用(总结或者同意转述),你都必须要使用正确的格式标注出来(常用的是 MLA、APA 或者是 Chicago 格式,关于 MLA 或者 APA 格式,参考之前的文章)。
      那么问题来了,怎么样的引用才在波士顿代写中才算是比较好的引用呢?以下几点要切记:
      1.能够清晰地告诉读者,原出处是在哪里(没有标出来的话就属于抄袭);
      2.能够有机的和自己的语言结合起来,而且没有语法错误(去掉引号以及后面的括号,读者看不出来是引用了别人的话);
      3.引用的内容只能是用来佐证自己的观点,所以整篇文章中的引文不应该是重点(从篇幅上来讲)。
      上面的第一点,请参考我们前面的文章为大家介绍的MLA、APA 格式,今天我们来讲讲第二点,如何引用的漂亮呢?这边介绍一种方法,叫做三明治引用(Sandwich Quotation),注意“每一层”字体的颜色,一种颜色代表一层,在举例的时候特别重要:
      明治的第一层,就是 signal phrase, 比如说:“As Gladwell argues,” “In his article ‘Brain Candy,’ Gladwell states” 这些短语能够告诉读者,我下面的内容引用自 Gladwell,这样的话,在后面的括号中不再需要写作者的 Last name 了。注意,如果是第一次出现,需要写出作者的全名,第二次出现写 Last name 即可;如果可能,写上作者的头衔,增强权威性。另外常见的 signal 动词有:criticizes, denies, explains, maintains, observes, suggests, admits, acknowledges, proposes 等等。
      三明治第二层,就是引用的内容了,该内容可以是直接引用,也可以是总结,也可以同意转述,也可以是三者的结合,引用玩之后,后面要用括号写上出处(这是 MLA 格式里面的 in-text citation 的要求),如:
      Speculating about why we so firmly believe that homework is critical to academic success, Gladwell suggests, “Perhaps because we have so little faith in the value of the things that children would otherwise be doing with their time” (36).【这里就是直接全部直接引用了】
      Similarly, Pink describes several studies that show that the careers of the future will rely heavily on creativity and spatial recognition, which means people who can think with the right side of their brain will have the advantage (65). 【这里就是总结引用了】
      As Malcolm Gladwell reminds us, many American schools have eliminated recess in favor of more math and language studies, favoring “explicit” learning over “collateral” learning (36). 【这边就是直接引用+总结相结合的引用】
     三明治的第三层,也是很多学生忽略的一层,就是你的引用和你想要表达的观点之间的联系(connection),不要觉得读者会自己去联系,你要为读者做这份工作。好的联系可以使以下手段的一种:
波士顿代写巧用"三明治引用"让论文引用更漂亮
      对你的引用进行评价,如:As Malcolm Gladwell reminds us, many American schools have eliminated recess in favor of more math and language studies, favoring “explicit” learning over “collateral” learning (36). This approach is problematic, because it takes away children’s opportunities to interact socially and problem-solve, which are critical skills in today’s world. 【最后一句话很关键】
      解释你引用的内容,如:Speculating about why we so firmly believe that homework is critical to academic success, Gladwell suggests, “Perhaps because we have so little faith in the value of the things that children would otherwise be doing with their time” (36). In other words, Gladwell is arguing that we are so fearful of letting children play that we fill up their time with activities like homework that show little benefit.
      将引用的内容和你的观点联系起来,如:Similarly, Pink describes several studies that show that the careers of the future will rely heavily on creativity and spatial recognition, which means people who can think with the right side of their brain will have the advantage (65). If so, then we also need to change our educational system so that we can strengthen our abilities to think with both sides of the brain, not just the left side.
      三明治引用在写比较长的论文非常有用,特别是老师要求你去找至少三处 sources 的时候,大家多去练习练习。这边还要单独讲一下美高英语课中的文学分析作业,这些作业往往只要你去分析你所读的小说、诗歌或者戏剧(primary source),不需要你去引用其他学者对这些作品的评价(secondary sources),这个时候貌似三明治里面的第一层貌似就用不到了,这边介绍两种方法:
      第一种是将原文的整个句子和自己的话联系在一起,如:Louise reacts initially with an immense grief that conforms to what might be socially expected from any person who has just learned the death of a loved one: “She wept at once, with sudden wild abandonment, in her sister’s arms” (652). 【这里面的 Louise 是短篇小说里面的人物,并不是作者,引用的原文的目的是为了支持前面对文本的解读】
      另外一种是只选取原文的只言片语和自己的话联系在一起,如:Although Richards is “careful” and “tender” as when he “break[s] to her as gently as possible the news of her husband’s death,” Louise weeps “with sudden, wild abandonment,” a reaction that conforms to society’s expectations (69).

      【注意】分析文学作品的时候,在讲故事情节的时候,要用文学一般现在时!

      引用往往是我们留学生在完成论文作业的时候最为头痛的问题,眼看好不容易论文写完了却要被各种文献格式搞得晕头转向,正因为如此大家才需要花更多的时间精力去完善reference部分。Meeloun竭诚为波士顿地区留学生提供波士顿论文代写服务,论文精修,网课代上服务,400+精英写作团队,70+代写代修科目支持,100%原创保证,按时交搞,超时赔付,超高性价比,赶紧咨询网站客服吧~