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MLA格式secondary source引用写作规范

发表时间:2017-05-26

 MLA格式secondary source引用写作规范

留学生们在写一些文史类的essay的时候,需要了解两个概念,分别是:primary source和secondary source。可能很多小伙伴都不知道是什么意思,Meeloun小编来给大家普及一下。文学作品本身叫做 primary source,言外之意就是第一手资料,未经过别人加工过的文本,而 secondary source 则是加工primary source 的一些文本,包括:批评某文学作品的文章(比如说你写的分析论文、其他批评家对某作品的批评)、该作者的传记(比如说谈到了该作者在创作该文学作品的经历)、作者自己写的文章或者自传(注意,作者的传记和自己写的文章在这里之所以被当做是 secondary source 是因为你的文章是引用这些资料来帮助你分析他们的文学作品,你不是在分析他们的传记本身,他们的文学作品才是 primary source)。如果引用,必须要用准确的 MLA 格式。
      MLA 格式包括两部分:In-text citation 以及 文章写完后另起一页的 Works Cited 页。通过你的格式,读者可以找到你的引言是出自哪本书的哪句话。

In-text Citation
      文章中的引用一般在括号中告诉读者引用文本的作者以及页码,如:
      Arguing that fate has little to do with the tragedy that befalls Oedipus, Bernard Knox writes that “the catastrophe of Oedipus is that he discovers his own identity; and for his discovery he is first and last responsible” (6).
      因为这边的句子里面已经讲出来是谁说的,所以括号里面不要再重复,如果句子中没说,则要在括号里写上 last name + 页码(Knox 6)。当然实际情况要复杂得多,比如说,引用《经济学人》杂志文章的时候,是没有作者的,引用网站文章的时候,是没有页码的,具体怎么引用,大家可以查看我们以前的文章。

Work Cited page
      等你文章都写好之后,要另起一页,把你文章中所引用的所有情况一一列出来,比如说(注意这边是悬挂缩进):

      一般书籍的格式是:Last name, First name. Name of the book. City of publication: Publisher, year of publication.
      那杂志、文集、诗歌、电视电影、网络新闻等等是什么格式呢?在我们之前的很多文章都给大家提到过,大家不妨去回顾一下。


Plagiarism
      讲一下学术抄袭这个大罪。一般以下几种行为是被认为是抄袭行为:
      使用别人的idea或者别人的原话的时候,没有使用正确的引用格式
      在引用别人原话的时候,没有加双引号
      在总结或者同意转述的时候,没有使用自己的语言
      大家看一下,下面是一个抄袭的例子:
      原文:
      Here again Glaspell’s story reflects a larger truth about the lives of rural women. Their isolation induced madness in many. The rate of insanity in rural areas, especially for women, was a much-discussed subject in the second half of the nineteenth century.
—Elaine Hedges, “Small Things Reconsidered: ‘A Jury of Her Peers,’” p. 59
      如果你这么写就是抄袭(下划线的部分必须要加双引号!)
      Glaspell may or may not want us to believe that Minnie Wright’s murder of her husband is an insane act, but Minnie’s loneliness and isolation certainly could have driven her mad. As Elaine Hedges notes, the rate of insanity in rural areas, especially for women, was a much-discussed subject in the second half of the nineteenth century (59).
      再来看一个例子:
      原文:
      Mothers [in the late nineteenth century] were advised to teach their daughters to make small, exact stitches, not only for durability but as a way of instilling habits of patience, neatness, and diligence. But such stitches also became a badge of one’s needlework skill, a source of self-esteem and of status, through the recognition and admiration of other women.
—Elaine Hedges, “Small Things Reconsidered: ‘A Jury of Her Peers,’ ” p. 62
      如果你这么写就是抄袭 (和原文用词、句式重复度太高!)
      One of the fìnal clues in the story, the irregular stitching in Minnie’s quilt patches, connects immediately with Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters. In the late nineteenth century, explains Elaine Hedges, small, exact stitches were valued not only for their durability. They became a badge of one’s prowess with the needle, a source of self-respect and of prestige, through the recognition and approval of other women (62).
      但是按照下面这样写就不会被认定为抄袭(同意转述程度要高!):
      One of the final clues in the story, the irregular stitching in Minnie’s quilt patches, connects immediately with Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters. In the late nineteenth century, explains Elaine Hedges, precise needlework was valued for more than its durability. It was a source of pride to women, a way of gaining status in the community of other women (62).

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