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海外Paper代写需正确使用逗号(附常见逗号使用错误)

发表时间:2017-05-09

海外Paper代写需正确使用逗号(附常见逗号使用错误)

在前面的文章休斯顿论文代写最常见的5种标点符号错误当中我们给大家介绍了一些比较常见的五种标点符号错误,不知道大家 逗有没有犯过这些比较基本的错误呢?希望大家有则改之,无则加勉。这篇文种Meeloun小编就非常详细的来给大家说说在海外paper代写 号中关于逗号的正确使用方法。
      逗号(The Comma):其主要作用为了避免歧义,为了让读者的阅读速度会更快,它的主要用法如下:

1. 用“逗号+连词”来连接两个单独的句子
      这里的句子必须是地位平等的两个句子,这样的连词有如下7种:and, but, or, nor, so, for 以及 yet,逗号的作用就是告诉读者,一个独立的句子已经结束,另外一个独立的句子马上开始,咱们来练练:
      The department sponsored a seminar on college survival skills and it also hosted a barbecue for new students. (需要在 skills 后面加一个逗号)
      注意!修改后应该是这样的:... skills, and... 大家看一下,skills和逗号之间没有空格,and 和逗号之间有一个空格!
      例外!如果两个单独的句子都很短,不加逗号不会产生歧义,则可以不用加逗号,如:The plane took off and we were on our way.
      下面这种问题是很多学生经常犯的,大家看出问题来了吗?
      A good money manager controls expenses, and invests surplus dollars to meet future needs. (and 前后不是单独的句子,所以不要加逗号!)

2. 副词性短语开头的句子其后加逗号与主句隔开
      如果一个句子是副词性的短语或者从句(状语从句)开头,那么要嫁一个逗号。这里逗号的作用就是告诉读者,整个句子的主句(重点)马上开始,看看下面的句子逗号应该加在哪里?
      Near a small stream at the bottom of the canyon the park rangers discovered an abandoned mine. (加在 canyon 后面)
      例外!如果副词性的短语非常短,不加逗号不会导致歧义,可以不加,如:
      In no time we were at 2,800 feet.

3. 用逗号链接一系列并列的词、词组或者从句
      Bubbles of air, leaves, ferns, bits of wood and insects are often found trapped in amber. (wood 后面加逗号)
      Langston Hughes’s poetry is concerned with racial pride, social justice and the diversity of the African American experience. (justice 后面加逗号)
      4. 并列的多个形容词之间没有 and 的时候需要逗号链接如果多个形容词不是用来单独修饰后面名词的时候(cumulative adjectives),不需要任何东西隔开。
      Roberto is a warm, gentle, affectionate father. 这三个形容词可以分开单独修饰 father,所以这三个形容词之间要逗号隔开,这边的逗号可以拿 and 来取代。
      如果连续的形容词不能够单独修饰后面的名词,这类的形容词叫做 cumulative adjectives,这类词之间不加任何东西,如:Three large gray shapes moved slowly toward us.

5. 非限定性成分用逗号隔开
      限定性成分(Restrictive elements)用来限制所修饰成分的意义,如果去掉,被修饰成分的意思会发生改变,这种情况下,不能加任何逗号,比如说:
      The campers need clothes that are durable. (加黑部分就是限定性成分,去掉之后,对这边被修饰成分 clothes 的意思有影响)
      Scientists who study the earth’s structure are called geologists. (同上)
      反之,非限定性成分和被修饰词之间的关系不是那么紧密,它的作用不是限定,而是增加信息,去掉之后,不影响被修饰成分的意思,如:
      The campers need sturdy shoes, which are expensive.
      The scientists, who represented eight different universities, met to review applications for the prestigious O’Hara Award.
      上面两句话的重点信息在主句上面,从句的内容去掉之后,不影响被修饰的名词在主句中的角色。除了定语从句,形容词性词组以及同位语词组也遵循上面的规则(即限定不加逗号,不限定加逗号),大家看下面的例句:
      The helicopter, with its million-candlepower spotlight illuminating the area, circled above. (加粗部分为非限定性成分,去掉之后,对helicopter意思影响不大)
      One corner of the attic was filled with newspapers dating from the early 1900s. (加粗部分为限定性成分,去掉之后,newspaper 意思变化很大)

6. 过渡词(组)后面需要加逗号表达停顿,这类词包括:however, therefore, moreover, for example, as a matter of fact, in other words 等等。
      Minh did not understand our language; moreover, he was unfamiliar with our customs. (注意 moreover 前面必须是分号,后面加一个逗号)
      As a matter of fact, American football was established by fans who wanted to play a more organized game of rugby. (这类词在句子开头,往往要加逗号和主句隔开)

7. 有些插入性的表达用来补充信息的,要用逗号隔开
      Evolution, as far as we know, doesn’t work this way.
      The bass weighed about twelve pounds, give or take a few ounces.

8. 对比强烈的词组要用逗号隔开
      The Epicurean philosophers sought mental, not bodily, pleasures.
      Unlike Robert, Celia loved dance contests.

9. 一些习惯性的用法
      1). 在直呼以及 Yes 和 No 后面需要逗号:
      Forgive me, Angela, for forgetting your birthday.
      Yes, the loan will probably be approved.
      2). 反问句中
      The film was faithful to the book, wasn’t it?
      3). 直接引语中
      In his “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” Martin Luther King Jr. wrote, “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed” (225).
      4). 日期
      On December 12, 1890, orders were sent out for the arrest of Sitting Bull.
      例外!如果日期在最前面或者没有给出具体哪一天,不需要加逗号,如:15 April 2009 以及 January 2008 was a...
      5). 地址
      John Lennon was born in Liverpool, England, in 1940.
      Please send the package to Greg Tarvin at 708 Spring Street, Washington, IL 61571. (注意!这边的61571是邮编,邮编前面不要加逗号!)
      6). 如果人们后面紧跟着头衔,需要加逗号隔开
      Sandra Belinsky, MD, has been appointed to the hospital board. (MD=Medicine Doctor) 
      7). 数字中
      3,500(此处逗号读成 thousand
      1,000,000(此处逗号读成 million
      2,000,222,222(此处逗号读成 billion

10. 在一些特殊情况下,需要加逗号避免歧义
      To err is human; to forgive, divine. 这边作者省略了 is
      All of the catastrophes that we had feared might happen, happened.

以上就是我们为大家整理的关于海外paper代写中逗号的正确使用方法,接下来让我们来看一些比较常见逗号使用错误,希望大家要引以为戒。

1. 下面这两个最最常见的错误,我们Meeloun写手在为客户修改润色的时候经常看到这样的错误:
      Marie Curie discovered radium, and later applied her work on radioactivity to medicine.
      Jake told us that his illness is serious, but that changes in his lifestyle can improve his chances for survival.
      上文中我们说过,“逗号+ 连词”的结构可以用来隔开两个单独的句子,但是,上面的两个句子是完整的一个句子,第一个句子中的 and 是用来并列两个谓语动词,第二个句子中的 but 是用来并列 两个宾语从句,所以两个句子中的逗号必须都要去掉!

2. 不要用逗号将动词和其主语或者宾语隔开,大家来看两个病句
      Zoos large enough to give the animals freedom to roam, are becoming more popular.
      Maxine Hong Kingston writes, that many Chinese American families struggle “to figure out how the invisible world the emigrants built around our childhoods fits in solid America” (107).
      根据规则2, 上面两个句子的逗号都是多余的。

3. 在进行列举的时候,不要在第一个项目前或者最后一个项目后添加逗号
      Other causes of asthmatic attacks are, stress, change in temperature, and cold air.
      Ironically, even novels that focus on horror, evil, and alienation, often have themes of spiritual renewal and redemption.
      上面两个句子中加红的逗号是多余的。

4. 在限定性修饰语和被修饰成分之间,不要加逗号
      Drivers, who think they own the road, make cycling a dangerous sport. (这边的两个逗号都是多余的,因为 who 引导的限定性定语从句不能和 被修饰的名词 drivers 分开,因为限定性定语从句去掉后,整个句子意思受到严重的影响)
      Margaret Mead’s book, Coming of Age in Samoa, stirred up considerable controversy when it was published in 1928. (逗号多余,理由同上)

5. 如果一个句子以状语从句结束,该从句对整体影响很大,中间不加逗号
      Don’t visit Paris at the height of the tourist season, unless you have booked hotel reservations. (这边的逗号多余)
      The lecture seemed to last only a short time, although the clock said it had gone on for more than an hour. (although, even though, though, whereas 引导的让步状语从句一般都不是很重要,一般都要加逗号将其和主句分开)

6. 其他常见的使用错误
      a.  Occasionally TV talk shows are performed live, but, more often they are taped. (but 后面的逗号多余)
      b. Although, the air was balmy, the water was too cold for swimming. (although 后面的逗号多余)

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