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留学生会计学dissertation代写案例

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The Cost of Buildings 
Contents List
1. Introduction
2.essay代写The bidding process
3. Design costs 
4. Construction costs
4.1 The Groundwork and Foundations
4.2 External works
4.3 Landscaping
4.4 Costs of mechanical and electrical work 
4.5 Alterations and repairs
5. Cost of the construction Equipment
6. Material costs
6.1 Concrete
6.2 Masonry
6.3 Wood
6.4 Doors and Windows
6.5 Metals
7. Labor costs
8. Insurance
9. Professional fees
10. Other consequences costs
11. Conclusion
12. Reference

Chapter 1
INTRODUTION

There are two systems that establish standards for the building design/ construction estimating process. One system, Master Format, is oriented to materials and installation. The other system, Uniformat, analyzes and compares various casts.

Building cost estimates classification. Related to various types of building cost estimate, a prudent owner or contractor must associate the “expect accuracy range”. The project total cost is greater than engineering and construction costs because items such as land acquisition, market study, environmental studies, and financing costs are also included. A critical element for controlling the cost, schedule, and scope of a project is gaining and maintaining control of the design process. Failure to control and manage this process will result in delays and increased construction costs. (Calin, M 2003)

The building industry and the civil engineering industry together are often referred to as the construction industry, and many firms operate in both sectors, even though their staff and organizations may be largely separate. The UK construction industry is quite large, with a turnover in 1987 of 34 billion pounds. This represented nearly half of the country’s fixed capital formation and about 8% of the gross national product. (Douglas, J and Peter, S 1991)

It is therefore very important for the cost planner to look at the general economic situation when forecasting costs. (Douglas, J and Peter, S 1991)

There are two ways in which building costs can be estimated or analyzed, based in the first instance on the prices charged for the finished buildings or parts thereof, and in the second instance on the cost of the resources required to create them.

Cost planning as a process is difficult to define concisely as it involves a variety of procedures and techniques used concurrently by the quantity surveyor (QS) or building economist. Traditional cost planning will usually follow the conventional outline design, detailed design process. In a practical sense, the cost planning process stars with the development of a ballpark figure to allow the client to decide whether the project is feasible. (Richard, K 2007)


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