收藏本站 | RSS订阅Meeloun论文网
你现在的位置:首页 » 未命名 » 正文
11月12日

建筑学论文-高层建筑节能课题研究

作者 : admin | 分类 : 未命名 | 超过 3285 人围观 | 已有 0 人发表了看法

摘 要:早在20世纪70年代,建筑节能的概念就被正式提出,建筑节能的核心是减少建筑能耗,提高建筑中的能源利用效率。而随着我国经济的持续快速增长,城市化进程加快,高层建筑的发展已进入到住宅领域,并成为建筑行业的主流。因此,对于高层建筑节能设计的研究,已经成为人们普遍关心的热点问题。

Pick to:  early in the 20th century 70's, the concept of energy-saving building was officially proposed, the core of energy-saving building is to reduce energy consumption and enhance the architecture in building energy efficiency. But as China's sustained rapid economic growth, urbanization, high-rise building development has entered a residential areas, and become the mainstream of the construction industry. So, for the high-rise building energy saving design research, has become a hot issue of concern to the people.


本文对我国高层建筑节能设计的现状进行了总结和展望,希望可以为我国高层建筑节能设计更好地与国际接轨,提供一定的参考。

This paper discusses high-rise building energy-saving design summarized the present situation of and prospects for our country, the hope can high-rise building energy-saving design better and the international community, provide certain reference.



关键词:高层建筑;节能设计; 前景展望

Keywords:  high-rise buildings; Energy-saving design; prospect


引言

preface

  

  能源是人类赖以生存和发展的基本条件,随着社会进步和社会经济的快速发展,能源需求与供给的矛盾日益突出,节约能源是人类当前面临的重要任务之一。而建筑节能是世界建筑发展的一个基本趋势,也是建筑科学技术的一个新的增长点。

Energy is human survival and development of the basic conditions, along with the social progress and the rapid development of social economy, energy demand and supply, saving energy increasingly prominent contradiction between the current human face is one of the important tasks. But the energy conservation of the building is a basic world architecture development trend, as well as building a new growth point of science and technology.


  随着改革开放和经济的快速发展,我国高层建筑大量兴建,80年代我国高层建筑的发展进入了兴盛时期,90年代进入了飞跃发展的阶段。在高层建筑向着更高、更强方向发展的同时,其节能设计的总趋势也发展为在增进人体健康、提高舒适性的条件下,有效利用能源、合理利用资源、减少温室气体排放、保护人类生存环境。因此,高层建筑节能设计已经成为世界建筑界共同关注的课题,亦成为中国建筑业热点问题。

Along with the reform and opening-up and the rapid development of economy, China's high-rise buildings built in a high-rise building, the 1980s boom of the development is in the 1990s into the leap development stage. In high-rise building toward a higher, more strong direction at the same time, the energy saving design the general trend of development in human body to improve and health and improving the conditions of comfort, energy efficiency, rational utilization of resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, protecting environment for human survival. Therefore, high-rise building energy-saving design has become the world's architectural community, the concern of Chinese construction has become a hot issue.


一、高层建筑中节能设计的应用现状

A, high-rise building energy-saving design in the application situation


高层建筑节能是一项复杂的系统工程,从高层建筑本体技术到高层建筑用材料产品、高层建筑热环境用设备等都存在着节能潜力。因此,高层建筑节能设计应是在保证其使用功能、建筑质量和室内环境的前提下,采取各种有效的节能技术与管理措施。

High-rise building efficiency is a complicated system engineering, from high-rise building ontology technology to high-level building materials products, high-rise building with equipment of thermal environment there are energy saving potential. Therefore, high-rise building energy saving design should be in guarantee its use function, construction quality and the premise of indoor environment, and adopts various effective energy saving technology and management measures.


1、外墙保温节能

1, external wall thermal insulation energy-saving


  对于我国现有高层建筑而言,其外部形式结构相似性较强,自身特点明显,且能耗主要集中体现在冬季的保温和夏季的隔热上,这样比较有利于节能技术的普及与推广。在高层建筑中外围护结构的热损耗较大,外围护结构中墙体又占了很大份额。所以高层建筑墙体改革与墙体节能技术的发展是高层建筑节能设计的一个最重要的环节,发展外墙保温技术及节能材料则是高层建筑节能的主要实现方式。节能设计主要体现在以下两方面:

For our country's existing high-rise building is concerned, its external form structural similarity is stronger, the characteristics of their energy consumption is evident, and the main embodied in the winter of heat preservation and heat insulation on summer energy-saving technology, which is beneficial in the popularization and promotion. In high-rise buildings of sino-foreign palisade structure heat loss is bigger, peripheral protect structure wall and account for a large share. So high-rise building with wall body walling reform of energy-saving technology development is energy-saving design of high-rise building one of the most important aspects of exterior wall thermal insulation technology, development and energy saving material is the main energy saving high-rise buildings implementation. Energy-saving design mainly embodied in the following two aspects:


  在建筑的基本形式不能改变的情况下,高层建筑节能设计可采用外墙外保温技术的建筑节能改造模式,改造时可多考虑节能保温涂料与轻型保温板材等技术的复合运用。目前,高效建筑绝热材料的使用和复合墙体的做法在国内不断推广,通过墙体采用岩棉、玻璃棉、聚苯乙烯塑料、聚氨酯泡沫塑料、聚乙烯塑料等新型高效保温绝热材料,减低外墙传热系数。

The basic form of the building cannot change circumstances, high-rise building energy-saving design can use of external thermal insulation technology transformation pattern, building energy transformation can consider insulation energy-saving coating and lightweight composite insulation board techniques, such as using. At present, the efficient use of building insulation materials and composite wall practice in domestic popularize continuously, through adopting rock cotton, glass walls of cotton, polystyrene plastic, polyurethane foam plastics, polyethylene plastic new high efficiency heat insulation materials and reduce external heat transfer coefficient.


  在对高层建筑其他功能的改造要求方面考虑较少的情况下,节能设计可采用外墙外保温技术和外墙内保温技术相结合的节能改造模式。改造时,因其支撑结构相对独立,各种技术运用的空间较大,可考虑以原有墙体作保温加固处理后再进行外包,宜采用各类型节能保温板材辅以保温辅料,并配合节能保温门窗等共同使用。

In other functions of high-rise building the reconstructive requirement into consideration under the circumstances of less, energy efficiency design can use exterior insulation technology and exterior wall insulation energy-saving technologies combining transformation pattern. Reform, because its support structure, various technology using relatively independent space bigger, can consider to make the original wall insulation reinforcement again after the outsourcing, appropriate USES each type insulation energy-saving plank with insulation materials, and cooperate with insulation energy-saving door to wait the common use.



2、屋面保温隔热节能

2、roof insulation energy-saving


  屋面是建筑外围护结构所受室外温度最高的地方,面积也较大,对高层建筑而言其节能的重要性尤为突出,因此,屋面的保温隔热措施对改善高层建筑室内温度环境、节约整体能耗非常重要。

Roofing is building periphery protect structure place suffers outdoor temperature the highest, area of high-rise building is larger also, as the importance of its energy-saving, particularly prominent therefore, roofing warm-keeping high-rise building for improving indoor temperature environment, save the overall energy consumption is very important.


  我国通常的屋面保温节能的做法是将容重低、导热系数小、吸水率低、有一定强度的轻质高效保温材料设置在防水层和屋面板之间,这种做法为正铺法。还有许多高层建筑采用了轻质高强、吸水率极低的挤塑聚苯板作为保温材料,采用倒铺法,取得了较好的效果。倒铺法是将防水层设置于保温层下,其优点是由于保温材料的保护作用,使防水材料免受室外空气温度的变化及施工人员来回走动所造成的损坏,大大延长了防水材料的使用年限,有一定节能功效,但造价较高。

Our usual roofing heat insulating and energy-saving approach is low, the density of thermal conductivity small, bibulous rate is low, have a certain intensity of lightweight high efficiency heat preservation material set in waterproof layer and roof board, this kind of practice is between shop law. There are many high-rise building adopts the lightweight high strength, bibulous rate is very low extruded polystyrene board as thermal insulation material, using pour shop law, and good results were obtained. Pour shop law is set in the waterproof layer insulation layer, its advantage is due to heat preservation material protective effect, make waterproof materials from outdoor air temperature change and construction personnel for damage caused by one.when, greatly extend the waterproof material use fixed number of year, have certain energy-saving effect, but cost is higher.


  目前,我国采用的浅色坡屋面节能设计技术。它既能有效排水,防止屋面渗漏,又能有效隔热保温,节约能源。深暗色的屋顶仅反射不到30%的日照,而非金属浅颜色的屋顶至少反射65%的日照,反射率高的屋顶大约节省20~30%的能源消耗。

At present, our country USES light color slope roof energy saving design technology. It can effective drainage, prevent, roof leakage and could effectively heat insulation, energy saving. Deep dark roof only less than 20~30% of sunlight reflected, and nonmetal of light color roof at least 65% of sunlight reflected, reflectivity high roof about save 20 to 30 percent of energy consumption.


4、合理利用各种基地地形节能

4、and reasonable use of various base terrain energy-saving


  在北高南低的向阳坡地形上,应顺着坡向平行布置高层建筑,这样既能获得充分日照和良好的通风,且正面视野宽广,可减少高层建筑之间的日照间距。

The low south in north high, should follow terrain north-facing slope to parallel is decorated high-rise buildings, such already can obtain sufficient sunshine and good ventilation, and positive view is broad, can reduce the sunshine spacing between high-rise buildings.


  在南高北低的坡地上,要调性前后排高层建筑的层数,避免过多拉大日照间距。还要尽量利用高差所形成的建筑底部的半封闭空间,作为停车、储藏等辅助空间。

The north slope in meteorological low on QianHouPai high-rise buildings, tonal the layer, avoid excessive widening sunshine spacing. Also try to use by the formation of the building bottom elevation of semi-closed space, as the auxiliary parking, storage space.


  在东、西向的坡地上,高层建筑应按垂直坡地的方向布置,并跟随坡地的高差改变其层数和高度,保持合理的日照间距,节省用地。

In east and west on the slope, high-rise buildings should press vertical slope and follow the direction of slope decorate, der gewaltige hohenunterschied change its layers and height, maintain reasonable sunshine spacing, save land.


  在平坦的地形上,则应布置成正南、北向(可适当偏角),既能顺应风向,又可获得较好日照,是减少间距、节约用地的最好办法。

On the flat terrain, should be decorated south, north to (PianJiao), can be appropriately it to comply with the wind, and can obtain good sunshine, was to reduce the distance, the best way to economical use of land.


  在边角地区,根据基地形状,布置塔式、单元式高层建筑;在基地的北侧,布置高层建筑,也是节地的好措施。

In marginal areas, according to the site, decorate tower, shape half-unit high-rise buildings; North of the base, decorate high-rise building, is also a good measure of land-saving.


二、高层建筑节能设计的发展前景

Second, high-rise building energy saving design development prospects


  面对全球能源的日益紧张,世界各国特别是欧美发达国家对节能技术给予了充分的重视。近30多年来,各国在高层建筑设计和施工、新型建筑材料的开发和应用、高层建筑节能法规的制定和实施、高层建筑节能认证和管理等方面做了很多的工作。不但节省了大量的能源,取得了可观的经济效益,同时改善了环境,降低对大气臭氧层的破坏。

Facing the global energy of the growing tension, the countries of the world, especially euramerican developed country to energy saving technology has given full attention. In the past 30 years, countries in the high-rise building design and construction, new building materials, the development and application of the high-rise building energy conservation regulations formulated and implemented, high-rise building energy-saving attestation and management has done a lot of work. Not only save a huge amount of energy, gained considerable economic benefit, and improved the atmosphere environment, reduces the destruction of the ozone layer.


  而我国的高层建筑节能设计工作从上个世纪90年代初才刚刚启动。因此,我们应做到:首先,在设计技术节能方面,积极采用节能建材、新型节能墙体、屋面的保温隔热技术、节能门窗的保温隔热和密闭技术,加大新能源和可再生能源如太阳能和低热能在高层建筑中的应用,并进一步推广不同能源的热泵技术、产品以及回收废热、余热技术;其次,在高层建筑节能设计管理方面,加强高层建筑节能标准化工作,严格实行高层建筑的节能设计,要把高层建筑节能设计作为高层建筑设计是否达标的重要考核项目;再次,在高层建筑设备产品的使用方面,应采用节能型供热、空调设备,并提高设备运行时的能源利用率,以达到更好节能的目的。

But in China the high-rise buildings from energy-saving design work in the early 1990s just start. Therefore, we should do: first, energy aspect in design technology, actively adopt energy-saving building materials, new energy-saving wall body, the roof insulation technology, energy-saving door window insulation and airtight technology, increasing new and renewable energy such as solar energy and low thermal can in high-rise buildings, and further promote the application of different energy heat pump technology, products and recycling waste heat, waste heat technology; Secondly, in the high-rise building energy-saving design management, to strengthen high-level building energy efficiency standardization work, strictly enforce the energy-saving design of high-rise building, high-rise building energy-saving design as high-rise building design meets the standards important assessment project; Again, in the high-rise building, the use of equipment products should adopt the energy-saving heating and air-conditioning equipment, and improve the energy efficiency of equipment operation, in order to achieve the purpose of energy-saving better.


  总之,建筑节能是国家发展的基本国策之一,高层建筑又是标志性极强的建筑,因此,抓好高层建筑的节能设计,合理地使用和有效地利用能源,提高能源的有效利用率,将会带动国家和地方的建筑节能事业,促进全社会建筑节能的技术进步。我国的高层建筑节能道路,应在学习、借鉴国外成功做法的基础上,结合我国国情,建立与高层建筑节能相关的重点技术的研究开发力度,加快推广和普及国外先进适用的节能设计技术,促进高层建筑节能设计的发展。相信在不久的将来,在大家的共同努力下,我国的高层建筑节能事业必将欣欣向荣、前景灿烂。

In short, the energy conservation of the building is one of the basic state policy of national development, high-rise building is the landmark buildings, so strong, pays special attention to energy conservation design of high-rise building, reasonable use and efficient use of energy resources, improving energy utilization, will promote national and local building energy saving and promote the whole society of building energy saving technology progress. China's high-rise building energy-saving road, should be in learning and borrowing abroad on the basis of successful practice, combined with actual situation in China, the establishment and the high-rise building energy-saving related key technology research and development efforts, accelerate to popularize the foreign advanced applicable energy-saving design technology, promote the development of the high-rise building energy-saving design. I believe in the near future, the joint effort of the high-rise building, our energy saving cause prosperous, bright future will be.

上一篇:summary写作步骤和模板 下一篇:美国穷人和中国中产阶级对比

相关文章

额 本文暂时没人评论 来添加一个吧

发表评论

必填

选填

选填

◎欢迎参与讨论,请在这里发表您的看法、交流您的观点。

最近发表
最新留言
网站分类
标签列表
«   2018年11月   »
1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
2627282930
站点信息
  • 文章总数:312
  • 页面总数:1
  • 分类总数:4
  • 标签总数:154
  • 评论总数:57
  • 浏览总数:990966