Pick to: early in the 20th century 70's, the concept of energy-saving building was officially proposed, the core of energy-saving building is to reduce energy consumption and enhance the architecture in building energy efficiency. But as China's sustained rapid economic growth, urbanization, high-rise building development has entered a residential areas, and become the mainstream of the construction industry. So, for the high-rise building energy saving design research, has become a hot issue of concern to the people.
This paper discusses high-rise building energy-saving design summarized the present situation of and prospects for our country, the hope can high-rise building energy-saving design better and the international community, provide certain reference.
Keywords: high-rise buildings; Energy-saving design; prospect
Energy is human survival and development of the basic conditions, along with the social progress and the rapid development of social economy, energy demand and supply, saving energy increasingly prominent contradiction between the current human face is one of the important tasks. But the energy conservation of the building is a basic world architecture development trend, as well as building a new growth point of science and technology.
Along with the reform and opening-up and the rapid development of economy, China's high-rise buildings built in a high-rise building, the 1980s boom of the development is in the 1990s into the leap development stage. In high-rise building toward a higher, more strong direction at the same time, the energy saving design the general trend of development in human body to improve and health and improving the conditions of comfort, energy efficiency, rational utilization of resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, protecting environment for human survival. Therefore, high-rise building energy-saving design has become the world's architectural community, the concern of Chinese construction has become a hot issue.
A, high-rise building energy-saving design in the application situation
High-rise building efficiency is a complicated system engineering, from high-rise building ontology technology to high-level building materials products, high-rise building with equipment of thermal environment there are energy saving potential. Therefore, high-rise building energy saving design should be in guarantee its use function, construction quality and the premise of indoor environment, and adopts various effective energy saving technology and management measures.
1, external wall thermal insulation energy-saving
For our country's existing high-rise building is concerned, its external form structural similarity is stronger, the characteristics of their energy consumption is evident, and the main embodied in the winter of heat preservation and heat insulation on summer energy-saving technology, which is beneficial in the popularization and promotion. In high-rise buildings of sino-foreign palisade structure heat loss is bigger, peripheral protect structure wall and account for a large share. So high-rise building with wall body walling reform of energy-saving technology development is energy-saving design of high-rise building one of the most important aspects of exterior wall thermal insulation technology, development and energy saving material is the main energy saving high-rise buildings implementation. Energy-saving design mainly embodied in the following two aspects:
The basic form of the building cannot change circumstances, high-rise building energy-saving design can use of external thermal insulation technology transformation pattern, building energy transformation can consider insulation energy-saving coating and lightweight composite insulation board techniques, such as using. At present, the efficient use of building insulation materials and composite wall practice in domestic popularize continuously, through adopting rock cotton, glass walls of cotton, polystyrene plastic, polyurethane foam plastics, polyethylene plastic new high efficiency heat insulation materials and reduce external heat transfer coefficient.
In other functions of high-rise building the reconstructive requirement into consideration under the circumstances of less, energy efficiency design can use exterior insulation technology and exterior wall insulation energy-saving technologies combining transformation pattern. Reform, because its support structure, various technology using relatively independent space bigger, can consider to make the original wall insulation reinforcement again after the outsourcing, appropriate USES each type insulation energy-saving plank with insulation materials, and cooperate with insulation energy-saving door to wait the common use.
2、roof insulation energy-saving
Roofing is building periphery protect structure place suffers outdoor temperature the highest, area of high-rise building is larger also, as the importance of its energy-saving, particularly prominent therefore, roofing warm-keeping high-rise building for improving indoor temperature environment, save the overall energy consumption is very important.
Our usual roofing heat insulating and energy-saving approach is low, the density of thermal conductivity small, bibulous rate is low, have a certain intensity of lightweight high efficiency heat preservation material set in waterproof layer and roof board, this kind of practice is between shop law. There are many high-rise building adopts the lightweight high strength, bibulous rate is very low extruded polystyrene board as thermal insulation material, using pour shop law, and good results were obtained. Pour shop law is set in the waterproof layer insulation layer, its advantage is due to heat preservation material protective effect, make waterproof materials from outdoor air temperature change and construction personnel for damage caused by one.when, greatly extend the waterproof material use fixed number of year, have certain energy-saving effect, but cost is higher.
At present, our country USES light color slope roof energy saving design technology. It can effective drainage, prevent, roof leakage and could effectively heat insulation, energy saving. Deep dark roof only less than 20~30% of sunlight reflected, and nonmetal of light color roof at least 65% of sunlight reflected, reflectivity high roof about save 20 to 30 percent of energy consumption.
4、and reasonable use of various base terrain energy-saving
The low south in north high, should follow terrain north-facing slope to parallel is decorated high-rise buildings, such already can obtain sufficient sunshine and good ventilation, and positive view is broad, can reduce the sunshine spacing between high-rise buildings.
The north slope in meteorological low on QianHouPai high-rise buildings, tonal the layer, avoid excessive widening sunshine spacing. Also try to use by the formation of the building bottom elevation of semi-closed space, as the auxiliary parking, storage space.
In east and west on the slope, high-rise buildings should press vertical slope and follow the direction of slope decorate, der gewaltige hohenunterschied change its layers and height, maintain reasonable sunshine spacing, save land.
On the flat terrain, should be decorated south, north to (PianJiao), can be appropriately it to comply with the wind, and can obtain good sunshine, was to reduce the distance, the best way to economical use of land.
In marginal areas, according to the site, decorate tower, shape half-unit high-rise buildings; North of the base, decorate high-rise building, is also a good measure of land-saving.
Second, high-rise building energy saving design development prospects
Facing the global energy of the growing tension, the countries of the world, especially euramerican developed country to energy saving technology has given full attention. In the past 30 years, countries in the high-rise building design and construction, new building materials, the development and application of the high-rise building energy conservation regulations formulated and implemented, high-rise building energy-saving attestation and management has done a lot of work. Not only save a huge amount of energy, gained considerable economic benefit, and improved the atmosphere environment, reduces the destruction of the ozone layer.
But in China the high-rise buildings from energy-saving design work in the early 1990s just start. Therefore, we should do: first, energy aspect in design technology, actively adopt energy-saving building materials, new energy-saving wall body, the roof insulation technology, energy-saving door window insulation and airtight technology, increasing new and renewable energy such as solar energy and low thermal can in high-rise buildings, and further promote the application of different energy heat pump technology, products and recycling waste heat, waste heat technology; Secondly, in the high-rise building energy-saving design management, to strengthen high-level building energy efficiency standardization work, strictly enforce the energy-saving design of high-rise building, high-rise building energy-saving design as high-rise building design meets the standards important assessment project; Again, in the high-rise building, the use of equipment products should adopt the energy-saving heating and air-conditioning equipment, and improve the energy efficiency of equipment operation, in order to achieve the purpose of energy-saving better.
In short, the energy conservation of the building is one of the basic state policy of national development, high-rise building is the landmark buildings, so strong, pays special attention to energy conservation design of high-rise building, reasonable use and efficient use of energy resources, improving energy utilization, will promote national and local building energy saving and promote the whole society of building energy saving technology progress. China's high-rise building energy-saving road, should be in learning and borrowing abroad on the basis of successful practice, combined with actual situation in China, the establishment and the high-rise building energy-saving related key technology research and development efforts, accelerate to popularize the foreign advanced applicable energy-saving design technology, promote the development of the high-rise building energy-saving design. I believe in the near future, the joint effort of the high-rise building, our energy saving cause prosperous, bright future will be.