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留学论文写作中要如何写好introduction?

发表时间:2018-04-29

很多留学生对于引言部分的理解还不够透彻,今天Meeloun小编给同学们分享How to writing the introduction。我们会详细描述在留学论文写作中Introduction的基本组成部分,以及每个组成部分改怎么撰写,避免在英文写作中出现错误。

      what is the Introduction?
      引言是什么?

      The introduction is the first part of an essay, usually the first paragraph. The introduction dose not have to be written first, however. Some writers design and write this part of the essay last or at another point in their writing process.
      引言(Introduction)一般是文章的第一段。
 
      There are many ways to write an introduction. Some writers begin with a question. Other writers give background information about the topic. The kind of introduction you choose depends on how you want to present the topic and the kind of essay you decide to write.

      引言(Introduction)的写法有很多中,有些作者以一个问句开始,有些作者写主题的背景信息。无论你选择哪一种引言,依赖于你想表达的主题和你决定写的作文类型。

      What is in the introduction?
      引言包含什么?

      The introduction for most essays is one paragraph. This introductory paragraph usually consists of three parts。

      引言一般由三个部分组成:1. 勾 2. 链接信息 3. 文章主旨

留学论文写作中引言的组成部分
      Now look at each of these parts to see what they are and how they work in the introduction.
      下面为大家详细介绍引言的各个组成部分。

      The Hook(勾)
hook在引言中的作用
      The hook is the opening statement or statements of an essay. Just as people use a hook at the end of a fishing pole to catch a fish, writers use a hook to catch the reader’s attention. If a hook does its job well, readers will stay with the essay and want to read the rest of it. The hook is the one part of an essay where you can be as creative as you want.

      “勾”顾名思义是吸引的意思,引起读者的兴趣和注意力。勾的作用是打开文章想要阐述的主旨,吸引读者有兴趣阅读全文。这个勾是文章的一部分,引起读者的想象以及勾起读者迫不及待阅读下文的想法。
 
      There are many different ways to write a hook.
      Ask a question.
      Use an interesting observation.
      Use a unique scenario to catch readers” attention.
      Begin with a famous quote.
      Use a surprising or shocking statistic.
      为了达到“勾”所起的作用,引起读者的兴趣和注意力。 准确的“勾”的表达方式主要有5种:

      Ask a question
      提出一个问题

      如果读者想要知道这个问题的答案,那说明他们已经被“勾”住并想要读这个文章。例如:一篇关于“在科技使用方面需要更多规则”的文章,如果你是作者,你可能会在开头提出以下问题,以引起读者兴趣:

      How many people begin their mornings-every day-by checking their cell phones?

      Use an interesting observation
      使用一个有趣的视角来观察

      例如:
      European economists are not sleeping well these days.

      这个观察使读者想要了解为什么经济学家不能睡个好觉了。这个勾可以引出文章的主旨,突出引起三个主要在欧洲经济衰退的原因。

      Use a unique scenario 
      使用一个特定场景吸引读者的注意力

      例如:
      Travelling at more than one hundred miles an hour, he feels as though he is not moving. He is engulfed in complete silence. For a moment, it is as if he has entered another dimension.

      Begin with a famous quote
      引用名言

      例如:
      I have a dream.

      许多读者看到这个“勾”一定会想到马丁路德金,以及他的战斗。但是也许这个勾只是一篇文章的开始,也许这篇文章就是写关于睡觉模型的。但是你已经被吸引了,不是吗?

      Use a surprising or shocking statistic
      使用一个令人震惊的统计

      例如:
      The divorce rate in the United State is well over 50 percent.

      使用这种夸张的统计,会让读者觉得不可思议,而去读剩下的文章,看数据是否真实。而这个“勾”起到吸引读者去阅读。

      Connection information
      链接信息

      After the hook, the writer usually writes connecting information, which is three to five sentences that help connect the reader to the topic. These sentences can be background information about the topic or they can be examples.

      在文章最开始“勾”后,将会写链接信息。链接信息一般是3-5个句子,可以帮助读者链接到主旨句。在汉语里面应该叫做“过渡句”,让读者能接受文章接下来要讲什么内容。这些链接的句子可以是背景信息,也可以是具体的例子。

      例如:文章How Cinderella probably spent her day before she met the prince? 也许你会写一些例子作为链接信息。

      Her daily routine was not glamorous. She did everything from sweeping the floors to cooking the meals. If someone had asked Cinderella which chores she did not particularly like, she probably would have answered,” Why, none, of course. Housework is duty!”

      通过以上句子想表达的信息,读者会很清楚文章将要表达的主题---unpleasant housework chores.

      The thesis statement
      文章主旨

      The Thesis Statement is usually the last part of the introduction. It is usually one sentence. In the Thesis Statement. The writer tells the reader what to expect in the essay. Basically, there are two kinds of thesis statements- direct and indirect.( they may also be called stated and implied thesis statements.)

      主旨句一般是引言的最后一个部分,一般是一个完整的句子。通过这个主旨句,作者将告诉读者文章将要表达的中心思想是什么。一般有两种不同的方式表达文章主旨--直接表达和间接表达。

      Direct Thesis Statement
      1. Direct Thesis Statement. some writers want to give a specific outline of their thesis statements. 

      Read the following example:

      The main problems facing this nation are a lack of job opportunities for citizens, government corruption, and limited university programs for poor students.
 
      这样的主旨句叫做直接主旨,清楚明白的阐明文章想要表达的中心思想。读者将会明白,文章有三个主要的部分。第一部分讨论的是工作机会,第二部分将讨论政府腐败,最后一部分将讨论贫困学生的大学计划。

      Indirect Thesis Statement
      2. Indirect Thesis Statement. Other writes are not so direct. Discussing a similar topic as the previous:

      There are three important problems facing the nation today that require immediate attention.
 
      这样的主旨句叫暗旨,没有直接表明文章将要表达的主要观点,只表明文章下文将表达单个方面的因素。如果读者向知道他们国家具体面对哪些问题,那么需要读者去阅读文章下文,找到下文章支持观点的论证。这样的主旨叫做Indirect thesis.

      今天主要跟大家讲的是英文写作中引言(Introduction)的详细写法,希望大家选一个自己感兴趣的主题,进行练习。对于留学论文写作还有疑问的同学可以联系我们的客服!美伦现旗下写手超过400名,海龟硕博占据50%以上,更多写手资源正在火热招募中。美伦以质量为根本,诚信服务,严格执行双重审稿与检测,保证每一篇稿子都是精心原创并符合学科的需求,保障了留学生论文作业的通过率。