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英文论文写作如何让句式丰富多变?

发表时间:2018-04-26

英文论文写作

据说,中国留学生在英文论文写作时,传统的三大主语分别是:people/ there be/ it。虽然不确定这个总结的权威性,但是不得不承认的是,大家写出来的句子,确实很像。而这种相似性,很多时候来自于句首的几个单词。

      如果以 people 开始整句话,八成后面是一个比较简单的句子,people will 做什么事情,people should 做什么事情。如果是 there be,则后面跟一个名词,然后再加动词的时候,还可能会出现语法的错误(没有加 which,或者变分词)。

      不得不说,看惯了这样重复句式的老师,出现审美疲劳,然后错误的给出较低的分数,完全是可以理解的。在英文论文写作中,句式变化的需求非常大:

      优秀:uses a wide range of structures
      一般:uses a variety of complex structures
      及格:uses a mix of simple and complex sentenceforms

      如果句首的几个词出现了更多的可能性,比如 to do/ doing/ having done/ by/ so/ only if 等等,整句话怎么可能不丰富多样。

      1. 以主句开始整句话

      任何一个句子,剥去修饰成分,都是由主谓宾构成的(或者主谓、主系表),于是,句首的几个词,一般是主语。主语可以是什么呢?

      大多数的时候,想要写清楚一个意思,这几种主语的形式都有可能,可以根据不同的情景,前后相互微调一下即可。
      Undergraduates feel under increasing pressure, because of the soaring unemployment rate. 名词
      Those who are about to graduate from university may feel under increasing pressure, because of the soaring unemployment rate. 代词
      To find a decent and well-paid job seems to be increasingly difficult for the undergraduate. 不定式
      Finding a satisfying career is no easy task for most undergraduates. 动名词

      2. 以状语开始整句话

      一个句子除了主句,通常还有很多的补充成分,可以提到句首去的,往往是一些状语,比如时间、地点、目的、频率、表达情感态度的副词、连接副词等。这样,通过改变他们的位置,让句子产生更多的可能性。
      In contemporary society, moral education is an increasing important issue in the course of development.
      Inevitably, those who resist tackling climate change point to the global nature of emissions as a reason not to act.
      On aglobal scale, countries that supply capital equipment look like they will be the front-line beneficiaries of this package.
      From linguistic perspectives, research on the minority languages and different dialects of a country is of high importance to understand the formation of a nation and certain races.
      Through this way, the traditional culture will be kept from generation to generation.
      As essence of a local culture, traditional arts reflect a nation’s artistic talents and traditions.

      Artificial lighting at night is contributing to an alarming increase in light pollution, both in amount and in brightness, affecting places all over the world, a new study has found.
      → As is found in a new study, both in amount and in brightness, artificial lighting at night is contributing to an alarming increase in light pollution, affecting places all over the world.
      状语(副词)的位置一般比较灵活,在动词的附近,或者在句子的前后一般是说得通的,所以,这个方法是值得一试的。

      3. 以从句开始整句话

      如果句首不是直接出现主句,不妨先出现从句,根据相应的逻辑关系,选取合适的连词即可。大部分的从句,特别是状语从句,都可以放在句首,然后再写主句(so that 结果状语从句除外)。

      除了各种状语从句(if/ when/ because/ although/ in order that/ where)之外,比较少用的主语从句,也可能出现在句首。
      If the public transportation served this purpose, people would protest less about giving up their cars.
      Even though students may find some subjects difficult, the experience of dealing with the challenges can be valuable to them.
      Because tourists often carry expensive objects like cameras and are unaware of their surroundings, they make good targets for theft.
      As economic conditions improve, many people maintain that government should spend money on great projects such as building stadiums, theatres and museums.
      When a media outlet is forced to cover national and international news, it cannot address numerous interesting local stories because these stories are not of interest to very many viewers.
      Whether the energy can be in the circulatory use affects our choice in so many alternative sources.

      4. 以固定句型开始整句话

      部分时候,除了直接说出句子最核心的内容之外,可以在句首套上一个较为死板固定的常用句式,有的时候也许会显得啰嗦,更多时候,是增加句子多样性的一个不错的方法。

      很多以 there be 或者 it 作形式主语开头的套句,都具有这样的功效。
      There is no doubt that the relationship between family members is not as close as it used to be.
      With the increasing level of globalization, more and more students choose to study in other countries.
      Without government funding, hospitals have to make profit to survive.
      It is an established fact that emissions from engines pollute the atmosphere.
      There is a general acceptance that the government should balance its budget.

      5. 以分词结构开始整句话

      这种形式,相对还是有些难操作的。本来分词的形式(doing/ -ed)就是语法上来讲,比较难的一种形式,而且还要放在句首,可能会比较吃力。

      建议大家可以先尝试仿写已有的句子,等熟练之后,在自由地去写出这样的句型。

      Having been inherited, developed, opened up and innovated, old style Chinese palace foods with new features are ready to serve you.
      Invented less than a hundred years ago, computers are now used everywhere, even inside classrooms.
      Considering the fact that there is only one car for every 580 Chinese at present, the potential auto market is extremely attractive.
      Given the limited financial capacities of rural authorities and the large number of rural poor, a significant increase in government spending on healthcare is required.
      Not having enough funding, the company had no choice but to temporarily stop the R& D plan.

      6. 以倒装开始整句话

      这种方式更加复杂和高级了。前提必须是已经很好地掌握了倒装句,才能准确并且及时地想到用这些本不该出现在句首的东西出现在句首。

      这里篇幅有限,就不逐一展开讲解了,常见倒装之后可能放在句首的有:so/ only if/ only by/ 形容词/ not only/ hardly/ never/ not until 等。
      Not only could the acquisition of a foreign language promote the children’s intelligence development, but also it could stimulate their interest for study and enrich their knowledge scope.
      So serious is this problem that we have no alternative but to take some effective measures to solve this problem.
      Only by continuous efforts to put a full stop into a comma and to pursue your goal can a perfect full stop be waiting for you in the front.
      Not until the beginning of last century did people know electricity had a great impact on people's life.
      Only in recent years have women begun to catch up with men in this area.
      Splendid is the architecture of Manhattan, the heart of the city, with its hundred and more skyscrapers.

      当然,使句子更加多变,方法还有很多,我们不必一次吃成一个大胖子,学到一个,掌握一个,才是最实在的。对于英文论文写作还有相关疑问的同学可以联系我们的客服!美伦现旗下写手超过400名,海龟硕博占据50%以上,更多写手资源正在火热招募中。美伦以质量为根本,诚信服务,严格执行双重审稿与检测,保证每一篇稿子都是精心原创并符合学科的需求,保障了留学生论文作业的通过率。