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essay写作终极篇:副词在句子中的主要作用

发表时间:2018-03-19

essay写作终极篇:副词在句子中的主要作用

看完前两篇文章Meeloun小编相信留学生们对于副词的理解一定有了更深刻的认识,今天收尾的同时再给大家补充几点。希望同学们为了自己的essay写作能够坚持看完并融会贯通!

修饰语,分离词和连词
Adjuncts, Disjuncts, and Conjuncts

      不管它的位置,副词经常都工整地嵌在句子中。这种时候,这个副词被称作修饰语。(注意这一段前两句的划线的修饰语和修饰副词。)

      当副词不能嵌进从句时,它被称作分离词或连词而且经常用逗号隔开。
      一个分离词经常起到评价之后剩余句子的用处。
      虽然它经常修饰动词,副词也可以修饰一整个从句。
      (we could say that it modifies the entire clause, too.)
      注意这里“too”就是这句句子中的分离词。

      too也可以变成一个副词修饰词:It’s too hot to play outside. 一下是另外两个分离副词:
       Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot.
      Fortunately, no one was hurt.

      Regardless of its position, an adverb is often neatly integrated into the flow of a sentence. When this is true, as it almost always is, the adverb is called an adjunct. (Notice the underlined adjuncts or adjunctive adverbs in the first two sentences of this paragraph.) When the adverb does not fit into the flow of the clause, it is called a disjunct or a conjunct and is often set off by a comma or set of commas. A disjunct frequently acts as a kind of evaluation of the rest of the sentence. Although it usually modifies the verb, we could say that it modifies the entire clause, too. Notice how "too" is a disjunct in the sentence immediately before this one; that same word can also serve as an adjunct adverbial modifier: It's too hot to play outside. Here are two more disjunctive adverbs:
      • Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot.
      • Fortunately, no one was hurt.
      在另一方面,连词,在行文中起着连接的作用,标志着不同想法的过渡
      • If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I'm not staying.
      • We've told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, and yet he's done nothing to fix it.
      这一种类中最极致的纯粹用来连接的词被称作结合状语
      • Jose has spent years preparing for this event; nevertheless, he's the most nervous person here.
      • I love this school; however, I don't think I can afford the tuition.

      Conjuncts, on the other hand, serve a connector function within the flow of the text, signaling a transition between ideas.
      • If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I'm not staying.
      • We've told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, and yet he's done nothing to fix it.
      At the extreme edge of this category, we have the purely conjunctive device known as the conjunctive adverb (often called the adverbial conjunction):
      • Jose has spent years preparing for this event; nevertheless, he's the most nervous person here.
      • I love this school; however, I don't think I can afford the tuition.

一些特殊情况

       The adverbs enough and not enough usually take a postmodifier position:
      副词“enough”和“not enough”通常作后置定语:
      •    Is that music loud enough?
      •    These shoes are not big enough.
      •    In a roomful of elderly people, you must remember to speak loudly enough.

      (Notice, though, that when enough functions as an adjective, it can come before the noun:
      注意,当enough充当形容词的时候,,它也可以放在名词的前面:
      •    Did she give us enough time?
      The adverb enough is often followed by an infinitive:
      副词enough经常跟在不及物动词的后面:
      • She didn't run fast enough to win. 

      The adverb too is often followed by an infinitive:
      副词too经常跟在不及物动词的后面: 
      • She runs too slowly to enter this race. 
      The adverb too comes before adjectives and other adverbs:
      副词too放在形容词和其他副词的前面:
      •    Yasmin works hard. She works quickly, too.
      Another common construction with the adverb too is too followed by a prepositional phrase — for + the object of the preposition — followed by an infinitive:

      另外一个副词too的常见结构式too加上一个介词短语—for加介词对象—跟着一个不及物动词
      • This milk is too hot for a baby to drink.

关系副词
Relative Adverbs

      定语从句有时会由关系副词引导:where, when, 和why。虽然整个从句是定语从句并且会修饰一个名词,关系词本身充当着副词的作用(在从句内修饰一个动词

      关系副词where引导着一句修饰地点名词的从句
      • My entire family now worships in the church where my great grandfather used to be minister.

      关系代词“where”修饰动词“used to be”(所以where是有副词词性的),但整个从句 “where my great grandfather used to be minister”) 修饰了单词“church”

      一个when从句修饰关于时间的名词
      • My favorite month is always February, when we celebrate Valentine's Day and Presidents' Day.

      一个why从句修饰一个关于理由的名词
      •      Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?

      我们有时会在这样的从句中隔开关系副词,另外许多人喜欢在从句中用that替代why
      •      Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?
      •      I always look forward to the day when we begin our summer vacation.
      •      I know the reason that men like motorcycles.

      Adjectival clauses are sometimes introduced by what are called the relative adverbs: where, when, and why. Although the entire clause is adjectival and will modify a noun, the relative word itself fulfills an adverbial function (modifying a verb within its own clause).
      The relative adverb where will begin a clause that modifies a noun of place:
      • My entire family now worships in the church where my great grandfather used to be minister.

      The relative pronoun "where" modifies the verb "used to be" (which makes it adverbial), but the entire clause ("where my great grandfather used to be minister") modifies the word "church."

      A when clause will modify nouns of time:
      • My favorite month is always February, when we celebrate Valentine's Day and Presidents' Day.

      And a why clause will modify the noun reason:
      • Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?

      We sometimes leave out the relative adverb in such clauses, and many writers prefer "that" to "why" in a clause referring to "reason":
      • Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?
      • I always look forward to the day when we begin our summer vacation.
      • I know the reason that men like motorcycles.

观点,焦点和否定副词
Viewpoint, Focus, and Negative Adverbs

      一个观点副词通常放在一个名词后面并且和放在那个名词前面的形容词有关系
      • A successful athletic team is often a good team scholastically.
      • Investing all our money in snowmobiles was probably not a sound idea financially.
      你时常在这些情景中会听到一些诸如“scholastically speaking”或 “financially speaking”,但单词“speaking”几乎不需要。

      一个焦点副词表明了它连接了的部分被着重强调了,一个焦点副词会限制句意("He got an A just for attending the class.")或当成一个添加剂("He got an A in addition to being published.”)

      虽然像是否定词“not”和“never”经常嵌在动词中
      —"He has never been much help to his mother.”—
      他们并不是动词的一部分。他们其实是副词。

      然而,一个所谓的否定副词在句子中创造的否定含义和平常用的no/not/neither/nor/never结构所不同。
      • He seldom visits.
      • She hardly eats anything since the accident.
      • After her long and tedious lectures, rarely was anyone awake.

      A viewpoint adverb generally comes after a noun and is related to an adjective that precedes that noun:
      • A successful athletic team is often a good team scholastically.
      • Investing all our money in snowmobiles was probably not a sound idea financially.

      You will sometimes hear a phrase like "scholastically speaking" or "financially speaking" in these circumstances, but the word "speaking" is seldom necessary.

      A focus adverb indicates that what is being communicated is limited to the part that is focused; a focus adverb will tend either to limit the sense of the sentence ("He got an A just for attending the class.") or to act as an additive ("He got an A in addition to being published.”)

      Although negative constructions like the words "not" and "never" are usually found embedded within a verb string — "He has never been much help to his mother." — they are technically not part of the verb; they are, indeed, adverbs. However, a so-called negative adverb creates a negative meaning in a sentence without the use of the usual no/not/neither/nor/never constructions:
      • He seldom visits.
      • She hardly eats anything since the accident.
      • After her long and tedious lectures, rarely was anyone awake.

      关于在essay写作中副词的形式和使用就暂时告一段落了,Meeloun小编希望同学们看完之后essay写作水平有大提升!需要essay代写的同学可以联系我们的客服!你只需动动鼠标,或者动动拇指,就能轻松解决各种留学的难题。留学咨询、留学申请、留学文书、材料翻译,我们的服务都是全年无休的,品质和效率都能满足您的需求。