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留学论文写作中怎样修改平行结构(parallelism)

发表时间:2018-03-01

留学论文写作中怎样修改平行结构(parallelism)
      Parallelism Structure,平行结构,如果我们留学生在英文论文写作能够采用这种修辞句法结构方式可以让论文结构紧凑,句子之间协调对称,意义鲜明,从而使得论文逻辑性更强。但是我们很多留学生不具备地道的英语写作能力和思维,导致写出来的论文句子平行结构错乱,从而论文质量下降,未能拿到理想的分数,下文中hotessay小编就给大家说说留学论文中修改平行结构(parallelism structure)的三种方法。

      方法一: 修改少数与其他文法形式不一致的部分
      修改少数与其他文法形式不一致的部分是修正平行结构最简单的方式,大部分句子都可以使用这个来解决,但是复杂句或子句较多的长句,可能无法适用此方法,因为有可能会变动意思,这类长句的修改方法下面我们会提到。
  非平行结构句 正确平行结构句
1 like applesorangesand going to the zoo. like applesorangesand zoos.
2 The coach advised that I should eathealthily, exercise regularly, and that joining a gym would make this easier. The coach advised that I should eat healthily, exercise regularly, and join a gym. (Here, we lose some meaning regarding the fact that joining a gym would make exercising easier.)
3 Mary is a celebrated authordancerandwrites great songs. Mary is a celebrated authordancerandsongwriter.
      方法二: 修改多数与其他文法形式不一致的部分
      因为修改多数以配合少数的语法形式容易导致句子重复性高,所以这这个修改方法大家要慎重使用,而且修改多数毕竟要比修改少数花费的时间和精力更多,而且这个方法很容易变动句子的意思。
  非平行结构句 正确平行结构句
1 like applesorangesand going to the zoo. like eating appleseating orangesandgoing to the zoo (“eating” is repetitive).
2 The coach advised that I should eathealthily, exercise regularly, and that joining a gym would make this easier. The coach recommended exercisingregularly, eating healthily, and joining a gym. (Here, we lose some meaning regarding the fact that joining a gym would make exercising easier.)
3 Mary is a celebrated authordancerandwrites great songs. Mary is celebrated because she writesbooks, dancesand writes great songs.
      方法三: 拆解句子
      有时候修改句子可能需要将句子重组,否则可能会意外变动到原意。为避免失去句子原意,meeloun小编建议将句子衍伸。
  非平行结构句 正确平行结构句
1 like applesorangesand going to the zoo. I like eating apples and orangesI also like going to the zoo.
2 The coach advised that I should eathealthily, exercise regularly, and that joining a gym would make this easier. The coach advised that I should eat healthily and exercise regularly. He also told me that joining a gym would make working out easier.
3 Mary is a celebrated authordancerandwrites great songs. Mary is a celebrated author and dancerShe also writes great songs.
      注意: 比较句
      多数简单的平行结构句子都是由”and,” “or,” 或”but.”对等连接词所连接,其他较复杂的句子结构则令人相当困扰。
      · 关系子句使用”that”或”which.”
      · 分词子句由动词组成,功能如形容词,例如:”This car is built to last.”
      · 相关连接词有 “not only…but also,” “either…or,” “neither…nor,” “if…then,” 等等
      · 比较句的连接词典型的有 “than” 或 “as.”
      · 以上的句型皆须要使用平行结构!

      在修改这一类的句子时, 找到前后部分并检查是否两边都是同样的文法形式。
非平行结构句 正确平行结构句
I like the big house built in 1910 and featurestwo great living rooms. I like the big house built in 1910 that features two great living rooms. (Eliminate the problematic parallel structure by removing the conjunction.)
Mary owns a PR company, a place giving many growth opportunities and where people are rewarded based on merit (participial phrase + subordinate clause). Mary owns a PR company, a place giving many growth opportunities where people are rewarded based on merit. (Deleting the “and” fixes the parallelism issue. This method works for most cases where a participial phrase and subordinate clause are connected by a conjunction.)
not only like to play the violin, but alsodancing. not only like to play the violin, but I also like to dance.
OR
I like to not only play the violin but also dance.
Either we go to the store now or wait until next week. Either we go to the store now or we wait until next week.
prefer to go on a vacation than a bonus. prefer to go on a vacation than to receive a bonus.
      注意:动词时态转换
      另一个令人纠结的平行结构是动词转换。回想看看你是否有说过类似以下的句子:

      “I really like this movie, which was why I bought it.”
      We knew that we had little time, work had to be finished, and we needed to hurry.
      感觉很自然的句子,你发现错在哪了吗??

      “I really like this movie, which was why I bought it.”
      We knew that we had little time, work had to be finished, and we needed to hurry.
      句一的时态从现在转到过去而句二则在that句子突然转换成被动语态。现在来修正句子。

      “I really like this movie, which is why I bought it.”
      We knew that we had little time, we had to finish the work, and we needed to hurry.

      下面是Meeloun教育小编给大家整理出的平行结构检查一览表,大家在今后的留学论文写作中就可以按照下面的标准进行平行结果检查。
      · 找出句中的连接词
      · 检查连接词左右方的单字或句子是否为同样的形式,例如:动词、名词、形容词、 -ing子句等等。
      · 检查句中的子句,是否在同等位置有类似的句子?
      · 在句中的连接词两边的动词时态是否一致?
      · 如果句中有列表,是否列表 (A, B, C, etc.) 内容物的语法形式皆一致?