MAKING APPLICATIONS ASSIGNMENT
To begin with I would like to say that my essay is based on Black Art Work. Many people today would like to forget what happens at the beginning of 1980s and what it is the exact meaning of ‘Black Art’. Because they want to work with it and with out having any problems. This term may indicate a racial connection or imply the visual expressions of a race or its specific characteristics, but, as I argue here, this reading is not only simplistic but dangerously misleading for everyone and for Art work.
The real significance of the term lies in its specific temporality and historicity, which is often ignored even by those who write sympathetically about the work of black artists and their contribution to mainstream British culture. In fact to ignore this specificity and its social significance – which expresses not only a critical moment in the history of postwar British society but also a black experience and its articulation within the trajectory of postwar modernism – and to collapse it into whatever is produced by black artists is to undermine its historical importance.
However, when I was doing this research I found out that the allusion to ‘race’ in this specificity indicates an experience of a particular group of people or a community, which has resulted not necessarily from its own perception of itself but the way white society defines it by invoking its difference. I believe that this difference is of course there and is part of the community’s identity, but it is not important to what it says to in the modern world but what we believe. What therefore concerns Black Art is not so much this difference as how this difference is defined and experienced in a society that has not yet fully come to terms with its colonial past and its racial violence.
It seems that the intensity of this experience among some black art students was so great. It was this denunciation that underlies the emergence of Black Art in the early 1980s. It should not therefore be confused with the work of every black artist before and after this emergence.
Here I would like to first give a brief history of Black Art in Britain, describe its specific aims, objectives, and indeed its true vision, and then to see what was its achievement; and finally to ask how and why an art which began with a historically important radical position and agenda failed and collapsed into what has now become anything produced by non-white artists.
Although the idea of Black Art became widespread by the mid-1980s, as part of what is now known as the Black arts movement, comprising and encapsulating visual arts, film, photography, poetry, theatre, etc, my concern here is specific to various visual art expressions of Black Art.
What was particularly significant about Black Art was its ability to respond critically to the social and political forces of the time, and to set up an ideological framework for a militantly radical art movement. Its aim was to confront and change the system that, though centered in the West, put and dominated the whole world.
It was the time when in Britain, as well as in the US in particular, the political leadership turned to the right in order to explicitly re-establish its anti-socialist and imperialist agendas, with dire consequences for the world at large but also for the liberalism of the mainstream art world.
It was in this sociopolitical milieu, when many ‘avant-garde’ white artists – as they were thus deprived of their historical roles as the progressive conscience of Western liberalism – began to turn to their inner selves, cynicism and language-games, that Black Art in Britain came up with ‘a voice of humanity’, as some researchers wrote in 1982, ‘that refuses to be brutalized and in-sensitized’.
The amazing era of the Black Arts Movement developed the concept of an influential and artistic blackness that created controversial but significant organizations such as the Black Panther Party. The Black Arts Movement called for “an explicit connection between art and politics” (Smith). This movement shaped the most widespread age in black art history by captivating stereotypes and prejudice and turning it into artistic assessment.
Black art can refer to Art forms by persons of African descent. Specifically to the American, Australasian or European Black Arts Movement. Black magic even to the black art, a visual result in phase magic or to a chronological term for typesetting.
For Black Britain particularly, the decade brought modest applaud. The ‘riots’ of 1980 and 1981 seemed to confirm and solidify a marginal status for black British youth, whilst the injury of Cherry Groce and the death of Cynthia Jarrett likewise seemed to confirm an apparent cheapness of black life. All in all, it’s easy for us as a nation to imagine that the fractiousness and dissatisfaction of contemporary Britain has its roots in the things that happened to us in the 80s. We can’t quite put our finger on what’s wrong with 2005, but we have a sense that the 80s may well have something to do with it.
Keith Piper – ‘’Go West Young Man’’, 1996.
Customs and morals are not the same but this does not mean that I cannot involve myself and continue with my own life due to it being my decision to study elsewhere. I have discovered foreign artists living in other country’s who have based their own work on the way they have been up in their country of origin making this an advantage of discovering new ways. When I was doing my research I found out an artist called Keith Piper, a black artist who is important in organizing group exhibitions. He was part of and listened to the story of immigrants, involving himself showing photographs and text. I have chosen him as an artist because he is very important as a black artist. Drawing the bases of upcoming black art and artists he signify’s various points in his work.
This new publication Shades of Black: Assembling Black Arts in 1980s Britain attempts to put a positive spin on the 80s, wrapping itself around the rather overblown claim that the decade saw ‘the Black Arts Movement burst onto the British art scene with breathtaking intensity, changing the nature and perception of British culture irreversibly’.
For the most part, the book (which grew out of a conference held in the US in 2001) consists of 13 essays by contributors such as Rasheed Araeen, Keith Piper, Lubaina Himid, Naseem Khan and Gilane Tawadros, supplemented by a selection of artists’ images from the 80s and a chronology of artistic, cultural and political events from 1960 to 2000.
The contribution that most stridently remembers the 80s as a decade of disappointment and errant behavior is Araeen’s essay ‘The Success and the Failure of the Black Arts Movement’. In the staining knockabout speech that has turn out to be his brand, Araeen waxes lyrical about the extensive cast of characters from the 80s that have grievously disappointed him. For Araeen, the decade got off to a bad start when a paper he presented at a conference in 1982, ‘Art and Black Consciousness’, was ‘received with coldness and indifference’.
His 80s then went from bad to worse with the presentation of a large-scale exhibition that, Araeen argued, ‘turned out to be a disgraceful display of black mediocrity and third-rateness’. One hapless individual who was a particular source of sorrow for Araeen is chastised for failing Araeen’s litmus test. This sorry character, having dropped ‘his radically confrontational position’, went on to adopt ‘a change of view that was contradictory to the aims and objectives of black art’. Modesty prevents me from putting a name to the said individual.
Chila Kumari Burman, 1992.
Authenticity refers to the honesty of sources, ascriptions, promises, sincerity, devotion, and intentions. Authenticity or Authentic may refer to Authenticity (art), which describes the perception of art as faithful to the artist's self Considerations of time and space in art-historical narratives which are vital to understanding the conundrum of representation faced by modern and contemporary African artists. Within global capitalist, contemporary culture, location and dislocation, hybridity and syncretism, and narratives of movement and translation abound. The space from which one speaks and the voice in which one articulates identity become critical factors in establishing measures of authenticity and value. Throughout the evidence that I have constructed, authenticity can be seen in and out of art and questions the originality of someone’s work. Authenticity is the ground of being genuine up to an extent. An authenticity style of art is described by an individuals experience of being authentic, substantial and genuine, controvert to being commercial.
What do these revelations about authenticity say about Africa as a constructed field of knowledge within the contemporary art world? As I argue below, in each case, the catalogue author-curators structure these concerns in distinctive ways — but, taken all together, they form an important lens onto a developing discourse. Nor is this discourse divorced from broader art-historical concerns. In fact, many of the questions under debate echo longstanding European understandings of artistry, creativity, authenticity, taste, and aesthetic value.
McEvilley ends his round-up by creating opposing camps that gloss over distinctive, sometimes contradictory, and often shifting views of critics, curators, and scholars within the field, pitting the Picton-Stanislaus-Forum-Nka crowd against the Magnin-Martin-Vogel-Pigozzi lineage.
After dividing, he seems to call for a détente, writing that "It seems unnecessarily quarrelsome for the disagreement to persist at all. Will the two streams of African-art-in-the-West come to coexist and complement each other?" This question may be addressed by the one major player he has surprisingly or perhaps deliberately left out of the picture: Simon Njami.
McEviiley's essay "How Contemporary African Art comes to the West" is a remarkable attempt to rewrite the discourse surrounding these arts as it has developed over the last fifteen years. While much of the writing accompanying these exhibitions has been concerned with defining modern and contemporary African arts (and the two are not the same thing), McEviiley's essay rereads these past efforts in a deliberate act of canon reformation.
He is chiefly anxious with appealing those serious of the Pigozzi-Magnin approach. Parsing his summaries of debates, curatorial choices, and critical writings in the field, it becomes clear that we are, in effect, entering "the ditches of some of the most elemental art-historical debates about authenticity, the limits of canonical ideals, and the subjective constructions of value and taste."
Taking everything into account by attempting merely to add to the status quo, the curators open themselves up to easy dismissal on grounds of quality. And that is precisely the tack McEvilley takes, structuring an argument against the purity and authenticity of the conceptual works in question that eerily parallels that of Sewell's rant against contemporary African productions cited above: "That these artists practice a diluted or 'weak' form of conceptualism does not go very far toward proving the existence of conceptual art in Africa.
Rather, it proves that conceptual art exists in the various non-African places where these artists were educated and live". It is easy to find modernism's founding myths of originality, belief in artistic genius, and pursuit of universalisms of form and meaning within these writings about Africa, contemporaneity, and artistic expression.
Araeen, Rasheed. (2007) Inverted Racism, Art Monthly, Issue 306, p39-40
Bonami, F., eds., (2005) Universal Experience Art, Life, and the Tourist's Eye, Chicago: Museum of Contemporary Art, p23
Chambers, Eddie. (2006) Black Is a Color, Art Monthly, Issue 294, p36-37
Coles, A., ed., (2000) Site specificity: the ethnographic turn, London: Black Dog Publishing, p1-13
Pnina Werbner, (2003) 'Introduction: The Dialectics of Cultural Hybridity,' in Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multi-Cultural Identities and the Politics of Anti-Racism, Pnina Werbner and Tariq Modood, eds., p22
Schäfer, Henning. (2004) A Celebration of Impurity, Locating Syncretism and Hybridity in Native Canadian Theatre, Textual Studies in Canada, Summer2004 Issue 17, p79-96
Werbner, Pnina. (2002) The limits of cultural hybridity: on ritual monsters, poetic license and contested postcolonial purifications, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p133
“Travel or read, but either your body or soul must be on the way”. I throw my trust on this sentence and enjoy the joy and delight it brings for travel has become an indispensable part of my life. My travel career commenced in childhood when my parents took me traveled around. In our domestic journeys, I, the girl from a small town felt it a great pleasure to overlook and appreciate towering mountains, endless sea, forest of skyscrapers, and copious rural area scenery; while traveling abroad, I was bestowed with a feast of ethnic cultures all around the world, namely, the palace of dream-Paris, the fascinating spring in Kyoto, and the splendid night in Hong Kong. Unable to figure out an appropriate reason, I naturally desire to wander around to appreciate and understand diverse local customs as well as cultures, to worship the uncanny workmanship of nature, to record my feelings on the way, and to taste delicious food. To walk in different cities and view different landscape and scenery of the world, and then to view and perceive the world from a different perspective-this is the very profound significance of travel.
However, one is bound to return to the start point no matter how far he/she travels. It is such reason that drives me to do something for people who are still on the way, and this is also the reason why I am so captivated about the hotel industry. After entering university, whenever I travel with parents or friends, I am the one designated to be responsible for arranging hotel accommodation, because they all firmly trust my unique criteria on hotel selection. I will always pick out the most cost effective and suitable hotel among budget hotels or upscale hotels. Such numerous trips also sparks my idea to conduct a better understanding of hotel management and operation.
I have arrived at Los Angeles twice respectively during the summer camp in 2011 and my parent’s self-driving tour around the western United States in 2013. I crushed on San Diego especially in the self-driving tour when we spent an unforgettable night there. I caught a nostalgia of the blue sky, crystal sea, as well as the seafood restaurant with authentic taste. I visited the majestic U.S. Pacific Flee Base in Port of San Diego, watched seals frolic in groups in La Jolla Beach, as well as appreciated the most beautiful sunset in my life. However, I was sorry I could not stay in this beautiful city much longer to slowly savor the charm of her beauty. Surprisingly is that my university develop a project to do internship in San Diego. It will be the biggest good news to me if I was given the opportunity to do internship in the hotel in San Diego.
During my three years of study in this university, I actively participated in various volunteer projects, through which my communication skills and leadership ability has been greatly improved, so did my knowledge and understanding of the real society. In these projects, I was able to contact with various types of people, such as I taught autistic children painting and music in the Special Education Center, chatted or did handwork with the elderly in the nursing homes, carried out the work of guidance in the Alumin Associations of the university, and so forth. I occupy strong executive ability as well as enthusiasm of planning, which is the very reason that I chose marketing as my undergraduate study. In addition, I made encouraging academic achievements under careful instruction of my teacher in the past three years.
I am confident that I am competent in the hotel work in San Diego. Firstly, I have advantage in English, and I achieved 96 in TOEFL test in my sophomore year. Secondly, I have ultra-high passion for hotel service, because I will not only serve travelers on the way, but also accumulate plenty of experience and knowledge from it. Thus I, a person with strong sense of responsibility, will properly complete the work assigned.
For future, I plan to return to my motherland-China to assume a hotel job, the hotel I have ever practiced in would be better, after graduating from university, that is after completing my internship in San Diego. On one hand, the hotel industry related to tourism in China is promising, I am eager to contribute to the hotel industry in China, as it is in a stage of rapid development. On the other hand, I am greatly attached to my friends and parents. I am the only child at home so I will never settle far away from my parents. Therefore, to return to China and to be engaged in a hotel job is the best choice for me.
Statement of Objectives
Applicant’s Name: Lei Luo
Study Intention: M.A. Fall 2014
Preferred Advisors: Prof. Douglas G. Goodin, Prof. Marcellus M. Caldas
When I first heard the term “Remote Sensing” in the course Introduction to Remote Sensing, I thought it was something related to television remotes until my teacher used an application of it to illustrate remote sensing. There was a drought in an African country, where people were starving to death for the lack of food. The United Nations decided to send some food there before which they wanted to know how much food to send there. Remote sensing experts first evaluated the produce of rice or other crops in that country by employing remote sensing to calculate how much food was needed for survival, and then the UN would send the exact amount of food there. Though the job may sound easy, I feel it a great honor andresponsibility for it saves life and allows for no mistake. After that, I made up my mind to pursue my career as a remote sensing expert, which asks for in-depth studies in graduate school. Thus I want to first complete my graduate study abroad, and then continue to study for a Ph.D. degree.
I will get my diploma for Bachelor of Science in Geographic Information Science from China University of Geosciences (Beijing) in July 2014, and I have studiedcourses related to remote sensing,such as Introduction to Geo-information Science, The Principle and Methods of Remote Sensing,Remote Sensing Image Processing, Application of Remote SensingandRemote Sensing Software Practice,with an average score of 92.96.
Apart from taking theoretical courses, I have done many researches on remote sensing’s application in environment, vegetation and land use/cover. I also published several papers in these fields. Study on Geographical Change of the Economic Center of Beijing Based on Landsat TM Data, published on Huazhang, is about land use classification, economic and statistic models providing guidance to city planning. Ways to Improve the Accuracy of Land Use Classification for Mid-resolution Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study of Tongliang County, Chongqing City is a paper concerning multiple ways to improve the accuracy of supervised classification for moderate resolution satellite images. Vegetation Dynamic Monitoring: A Case Study of Yanqing, Huairou, Miyun District,published on Information & Communications, is aboutthe use of NDVI and method of pixel dichotomization in dealing with dynamic monitoring on forest variance.
With more spare timein the final year, I went to seek internship to explore more about remote sensing.Now I am a visiting graduate at Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, working with researcher Zhang Xin, mainly responsible for remote sensing images processing, land use classification, inversion of environmental parameters and evaluation of models. We are researching object-oriented classification, inversion of environmental parameters, evaluation of human impact on land use change, ecology and environment in Jiulongjiang Basin region, Fujian Province, China.
I want to continue my study in environmental processes, physical geography and land use/cover by using remote sensing, GIS and spatial-temporal approaches. I’d like to work with Dr. Douglas G. Goodinand Dr. Marcellus M. Caldas, because we share many common research interests, and most importantly, they are excellent researchers with whom I will learn a lot of study methods and realize my pursuit of being a remote sensing expert. I recently read Dr. Goodin’s paper Identifying a suitable combination of classiﬁcation technique and bandwidth(s)for burned area mapping in tallgrass prairie with MODIS imagery, in which pixel-based classification and object-based classification are compared. I also have done similar research on these two classification methods, and like SPOT 5, and for artificial land use, such as farm land, and not suit for mountain areas, in this case burned and unburned areas, because there are not many geometric properties. Studying and exploring methods to better understand the environmental processes, land use/cover are what I want to studyand I believe I can make a qualified researcher out of me under the instruction of Dr. Goodin and Dr. Caldas.
My research interest is to study land use/cover and physical geography by employing remote sensing and GIScience. Graduate study at the Geography Department, K-State addresses all these aspects, making it a perfect place to continue my future study where many research labs and facilities, such as GISSAL and Remote Sensing Lab, are available, which can facilitate my researches and study at K-State. The Geography Department at Kansas State University represents high academic and research ability in land use/cover, physical geography, remote sensing and GIScience. I will improve my research ability and devote myself to what I am interested in if I was given the opportunity to enter the Geography Department at K-State.
I have keen interest in bake whose procedure, seemingly like that of law and accounting, is supposed to formulate a strict control of the process, steps, the quantity, etc. We may also harvest food even when we put a little more flour, egg, or milk, but it can never be the most delicious because even a slight add of such ingredients can almost result in the failure of the whole precess. Thus one should be very cautious about the bake procedure, so does the law and accounting.
During middle school, as a science student, I am extraordinarily interested in mathematics. And later I found myself enthusiastic about accounting after I chose the accounting course and the accounting law. Then I chose forensic accounting and forensic accounting practice which attracted more of my attention than before. Law and accounting is mysterious like clearing up a case in detective fictions or films. Law stands for fairness and justice in modern China, and Chinese people are now growing more and more aware of the importance of law in regulating a harmonious country. Also more and more people are committed to work for a legal society, and I am eager to be one of them. Chinese said that China has welcomed its spring of governing by law after the appointment of chairman Xi Jinping, and I am looking forward to add a ray of my brilliance to the splendid spring of legal society. Therefore, I am more than delightful when I found that LSE offers a master program in law and accounting.
In my college study, I have ever studied the accounting, accounting for lawyers, practice for forensic accounting and financial management in which I achieved high grades as more than ninety scores. Due to my study of science in middle school, I could not master the study method of liberal arts as good as others, but thanked to my diligence and unremitting endeavor, I made a great progress and won a scholarship in the third year. In addition, once I was assigned as an exchange student to study e-commerce and international business in California State University--Long Beach for a period of time, during which I fell in love with the teaching methods there and gradually accustomed myself to the teaching in English.
When it comes to my project or working experiences corresponding to the program I want to apply for, I figure out three relative events I have participated in. The first was my participation in the study of “the survey and analysis of the ‘three public expenses’ respectively in 2010 and 2011 in the national ministries and commissions” conducted by forensic accounting research center of China University of Politics and Law, where we collected as much data as possible and analyzed them horizontally and vertically. What impressed me most was our successful team cooperation without which we could hardly complete the project study in such a rapid speed. The second was my research of “ the portrait of Chinese corrupt officials: the statistics and analysis of the feature index of Chinese corrupt officials” whose most challengeable point was the collection of data for the limited collecting channels. I tried my best to search for statistics via websites and finally overcame such a big obstacle. Last, I have ever completed a labor arbitration case in which I endeavored to obtain 5000 yuan for a labor who did not sign a labor contract. The above-mentioned cases did help me accumulate experience in this field, but I realize the urgent needs for further knowledge in this field.
As an affectionate person, I occupy strong team spirit and service spirit. I experienced many times of volunteer activities: supporting the education in rural areas, being guide of the art gallery, being the volunteer of the international conference on long walk, and the volunteer of 60th anniversary of the founding of my university. I won praise and recognition from my teachers as well as from my classmates. With a cautious attitude and a strong sense of planning and time, I always acted as a planner or coordinator in team cooperation. When operating on a project, I would first communicate and negotiate with our team members before we made an important decision; when we occurred to have different ideas, I coordinated to solve the disputes and determined the trade-offs.
LSE is a well-known university around the world and its arrangement of law and accounting program attracts me deeply. I favor the combination of two majors because I can acquire further knowledge there. I want to apply law and accounting feasibly to actual life where I can shoulder some social responsibility and become a person of accomplishment. China is now in great needs of such comprehensive talents, and I hope my choice will make some difference to my motherland.