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Pharmacy Essay代写|Pharmacy专业留学申请PS范文赏析

本文是一篇研究生药剂学留学申请的personal station范文供大家赏析学习。

I have always had a great interest in Science and Mathematics because of the impacts that both of these have on our daily lives. I have become fascinated by Pharmacy as a career because it brings together Chemistry and Maths and directly effects on the lives of people in the community. Pharmacists are now more actively involved with the patients and have become more accessible to the community and I am looking forward to the challenge of career that involves life long learning. I have learnt valuable skills in the subjects I have taken which will be beneficial to a career in Pharmacy.

In Chemistry, I have learnt an important skill in producing written and illustrated results from experiments. From this I am able to evaluate and modify these results. I enjoy the application of logical scientific thinking and knowledge of natural laws to analyse and solve problems occurring in Pharmacy. The practical side of Chemistry involving laboratory work was my main interest in this subject and would like to continue this work in helping others.

As a Pharmacist, you do require some skills in maths. With a knowledge of Mathematics I can analyse and solve problems and gained the skill of producing written and illustrated results for a mathematical problem. With Maths, I am able to calculate the accurate dosage of the drug which is required for the patient in relation to hospital pharmacy.

I can bring skills from Computing that can directly relate to a career in Pharmacy. A main skill developed is producing an analysis of a problem that can help in research work. Coursework in computing has enabled me to tackle complex subjects such as building a system via computer programming, I am confident this will be useful in a pharmacy degree.

I have pursued many activities that have given me experience in this field of study. I have encountered independent voluntary work for local Pharmacy branch located in Stretford. From this, I have learnt the insight of being a Community Pharmacist and dealing with prescriptions, which will prove valuable in the future.

I have advanced in my communication skills from part-time employment at Sport World International at Trafford Park. This has given me the opportunity to use my initiative and enabled me to interact with various kinds of situations with different people such as dealing with the consumer’s problems. This has helped me gain responsibility, which I know will be required in the career of Pharmacy.

With my studies aside, I have a passion for cricket and football. My favourite pastimes involves playing cricket and listening to music of all genres. My ongoing hobbies include squash, snooker, gym and travelling when and wherever possible. I enjoy going to the gym which help improves my self-esteem and motivates me in doing my work. Believing in yourself can help to establish your thoughts in a confident way.

At University, I would like to contribute to university life, as this will be a new experience and I will look forward to meeting new people. I am a reliable, determined and enthusiastic person who will relish the opportunity to study pharmacy if I am given the opportunity.

Based on chest X-ray, chest CT imaging changes, select the pus, lowest line the chest cavity closed drainage, drainage of pus, fully in 2 days to select the vomica highest line using the big diameter drainage tube closed thoracic drainage, pyothorax choose all costal collarbone midline between 2 for drainage, wrap pyothorax do colour to exceed to locate locate drainage mouth.Pipe diameter can be appropriately in low drainage tube, in order to reduce patient discomfort, determine after drainage tube patency (good water fluctuation or have pus drawn) since the slowly injected into a lavage (500 ml saline gentamycin + 160000 U [1] or 0.5% iodine v brine 500 ml [2]) see below tube with purulent fluid flow after closing, pay attention to during the process of injection patients with or without chest tightness, shortness of breath, dizziness and discomfort.And instructed the cough phlegm, take a deep breath and blow the balloon to promote lung after zhang, finished injection keep open drainage after 30 minutes, then from the pipe reverse lavage, perfusion tube drainage opening, when finished injection to keep open drainage of pipe after 30 minutes.Such as pus or more viscous fibrinoid substance derivation can join chymotrypsin protein (2.5 g/L) decomposition, dissolve the pus and necrotic tissue [3].At the same time, strengthen the body nutrition support treatment, choose sensitive antibiotic anti-infection treatment.Tuberculous pyothorax with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol quadruple anti-tuberculosis treatment, the whole body poisoning symptoms are combined with levofloxacin intravenous drip anti-tuberculosis treatment (usually 10-15 days).Patients generally improved postscript bed as much as possible, actively cough phlegm and blow the balloon after lung, deep breathing exercise lung function.Low negative pressure drainage not free when available to attract continuous negative pressure drainage, negative pressure of 4.9 kPa or less [4], after waiting for lavage tube on no pus out or has not smooth when pulling on the tube, check again the chest CT, pulmonary after zhang, pus cavity disappeared, no fluid residue after pulling down the tube.

Serious pleura pyothorax is the clinical common infectious disease, a variety of reasons can make the bacteria into the pleural cavity causing pleural congestion, edema and exudation.Pyothorax pathologically classified into acute exudation phase (phase I), subacute fiber maturation period (Ⅱ period), chronic fiber abscess (Ⅲ period).I, Ⅱ period for acute pyothorax, Ⅲ period for chronic pyothorax [A], our group are in phase I, Ⅱ cases.Pyothorax therapeutic principles including infection control, eliminate pus, systemic support three aspects of the treatment.Eliminate pus, eliminate pus cavity is the key to the treatment of acute pyothorax, due to the fast pyothorax acute phase formation of fibrous tissue separated pus cavity, causing a lot of room to drainage is difficult, if not treated or treatment is not easily extensive adhesion thoroughly, packages for the development of chronic pyothorax, need to open thoracic fiberboard stripped, serious or even line thoracoplasty.[B] surgical trauma, restore slower, so in the treatment of acute stage to be positive and effective measures to avoid turning into chronic pyothorax.

Pleural lavage can dissolve the pus and necrotic tissue, make the pus thin and relieve inflammation of the pleura and directly kill pathogenic bacteria, seepage, prompted pus timely and fully out of the body, relieve symptoms of infection, may, when necessary, the tube of low negative pressure drainage, so that it can reduce the fiber pus moss, promote the pus cavity closure, avoid lung surface fiber layer to the development of chronic pyothorax.1 cases for tips on chest CT colour to exceed the chest broad space, no obvious pus out after the single tube drainage, adopts the thoracoscope [5] to remove pus cavity fiber separation zone of any traffic drainage, pleural lavage, treatment effect is good.The author thinks traffic sex drainage of pleural cavity lavage in the treatment of acute pyothorax, when necessary, supplemented by thoracoscope minimally invasive surgery and the low negative pressure drainage is a good way to treatment of acute pyothorax.Can shorten the drainage time, length of hospital stay, easing the burden on patients, reduce patient pain, effectively prevent acute pyothorax to develop chronic pyothorax, worthy of promotion.

Grassroots health institutions accounting concentration accounting of the advantages and disadvantages, after the implementation of centralized accounting of basic medical and health institutions by the independent accounting business in grassroots medical institutions outside the accounting centralized accounting center, in accordance with the "centralized accounting, the standard management, unified account, household settlement" the principle of centralized accounting, the accounting center for supervision and grassroots medical institutions of various financial revenues and expenditures.Centralized accounting can objectively reflect the accounting transactions of grassroots medical institutions, to help grassroots health institutions to establish and perfect the system of property management, make the accounting business more professional.But there also exist the following problems need to solve: although external financial supervision strengthened, but internal check mechanism, financial conditions close to the surface is narrow, the financial expenditure is not transparent.When there is a false accounting information or omission of accounting matters, accounting responsibility between center and accounting units is not clear.

Strengthening budget mechanism and implement the responsibility.Government of grassroots medical institutions "approved verification tasks, balance of payments, comprehensive balance senders" budget management approach.Budget and financial management responsibility layers of requirements will be implemented to all departments, and through the linkage between the accounting and budget, implementation to strengthen financial supervision and accounting supervision, strengthen grass-roots medical institutions internal management, to ensure that the fund special fund is special, give full play to the purpose of efficient use of funds.

Reasonable division of revenues and expenditures, reflect positioning function.Clear the grassroots health institutions income by medical income, income of financial aid, and the higher subsidies income and other income, clearly reflected in the accounting process of subsidy funds flow into the channel.According to basic medical and health institutions to provide basic public health services function localization, set up under the "health care expenditure" course "public health expenditure" secondary course, at the same time, reflects the government for capital construction and equipment purchase budget compensation mechanism, will the government take the basic construction and equipment purchase of spending to "financial infrastructure equipment spending" course reflect separately.

Specification of asset management, guard against financial risks.According to the requirements of the grassroots health institutions budget management and compensation mechanism, and does not require to cost accounting of accrual basis, without plan carry depreciation of fixed assets or extract repair fund.Rational division and calculation of various kinds of balance of payments, to prevent unreasonable medical expenses increased, control the financial risk, and maintain the public welfare of public medical and health care.

In combination with implementing performance salary, establish reward fund, the establishment of incentive mechanism.At the grassroots medical institutions special fund set up incentive funds and provisions of the balance of payments in budget management mode of medical and health institutions at the grassroots level to the end of the taxable year after task completion performance appraisal be qualified, can be extracted according to the certain proportion of business income and expenses balances reward fund, the grassroots health institutions in combination with the implementation of the performance salary for staff performance appraisal reward, to improve the incentive constraints mechanism, fully arouse the enthusiasm of grassroots medical institutions of medical personnel, prompting them to better participate in health service and working.

出色的Research Essay sample

下面是美伦教育为大家整理的一篇优秀Research Essay范文-关于商业更好的思考方法以供大家参考学习。

A Better Way to Think About Business Ethics: How Personal Integrity Leads to Corporate Success by Robert C. Solomon presents an argument for a better way to think about business by the extensive application of Myths and metaphors in the best way possible. This piece of work by Solomon has been lauded in the business field as one the best in the analysis of the role of ethical practice in the success of an organization. Solomon intricately employs the combination of myths and metaphor within business to produce one the best works on the critical analysis of ethics.

In this powerful work, Solomon introduces myths and metaphor by illustrating the role of these two figurative languages in various fields of study such as physics, law and politics. The five myths and metaphors that have been extensively used by Solomon in this work include the metaphor of Mayhem, Vision and Civility, Better Fear than Love, the myth of Entrepreneur, the myth of Profit Motive and the Language of Dehumanization (Solomon, 1999). Through marketing, Solomon has explored these metaphors in the demonstration of deep understanding of ethical perspectives in the murky world of business. In the Language of Dehumanization, the author insists that that achieve meaning and identity, the critical factor is to separate money from the core business and eliminate it as a consideration. The language of dehumanization defines a list of issues that have been operative in business but have been eclipsed by the human desire to make money.  Solomon sympathizes with individuals who cannot see the critical point of working except for the reason to make money. The point is that all the activities they are involved in their entire work life are then useless and meaningless.

The sad truth which is at the same time a fact on how not to think about business is that the image of materialistic selfishness eclipses the many positive virtues in business and business people. These positive virtues include their pride in products and services, there relationships with their co workers and customers and their dedication to their work (Solomon, 2010). The Language of Dehumanization in business one metaphor on how not to think about business in that whole process as described by Solomon is “art of the deal” is what is celebrated, as opposed to the efforts in the production and distribution of quality products which at times ate lifesaving (Solomon, 1999). The all talk about money in business is dehumanizing. Whereas Solomon insists that business is an exemplary activity that encompasses mutual and genuine needs, desires and demands, the whole talk about money leaves out the critical components of personal attachments and obligations. This then gives great attention to our financial dealings that form the pillars of our lives. The danger of dehumanizing business is that we fall into a trap of dehumanizing policies, strategies and institutions in business.

The second Metaphor, Better Fear than Love describes the rough world of business environment that demands more than resilience. Solomon describes the whole world as unfair, rough, under which only the ruthless can have the tenacity to survive. In describing as a brilliant consultant, there is the caution that people would do best with what they want to hear and can practically put to good use. The Machiavellian ideologies were later replaced by Aristotle conception of Honorable statesman that melded ethics and politics (Benjamin, 2007 and Burnes, 2009). Solomon therefore explores the metaphor better fear than love and relates it to the corrupt Italian empire at the time of great development and expansion by other European nations. In this respect, Solomon intones a better way to think about business must encompass ore fear than love in business field.

The myth of Entrepreneur is projected by Solomon as virtues that are critical to the success in business. Within this Myth, Solomon maintains that ethics is paramount for long term business survival and success of an individual. One of the reasons is that ethics of character requires so much defense and explanation in entrepreneurship in the modern days and in the words of Solomon seem to be of great concern and constitutes traits considered as critical virtues or vices in business. In the analysis of this metaphor, Roth (2003)intones that “in keeping with his conviction that virtue and profit must thrive together, Solomon both examines the ways in which deficient values actually destroy businesses, and debunks the pervasive myths that encourage unethical business practices.” Solomon therefore projects the point that an entrepreneurial mindset refers to aspire and devise the organizational setup by introducing a ground-breaking business approach as a trademark in the market.

In philosophical business sense existentialism, axiology, pragmatism, and ethics are the key magnets that influence the nurture of entity’s persona and establish the organizational behavioral and management structure (McNamara, 2008 and Koter, 1996). However, in today’s ingenious and methodical business era the achievement of standard business environment and market standing is not only hard, but in some cases impossible for an un-resourceful business approach. Therefore, the entrepreneurial psychology refers to the psychological study of the current business practice its implementation and making the business according to the most appropriate business concepts and current business practices and ethics (DuBrin, 2004). A better way to think about business ethics is to underline the myth of the entrepreneurial.

Solomon insists that the myth of Profit Motive has remained the major driving engines of all business. To achieve a perfect balance between the Myth of Profit Motive and think better about business, a business man must embrace the catalogue of business virtues.  For the Myth of Profit Motive, it is paramount that a businessman understands the discipline of business psychology which provides valuable knowledge and insights that assist business managers in the understanding of people’s behavior in business. As projected by Solomon, such knowledge equips a business manager with relevant information in regard to human behavior when faced with challenges in business and management context. The psychological understanding of different personality traits has the capacity to affect the workplace because some differences can be perceived by other employees as negative and thus cause discomfort to others.  This would not only affect the spiritual culture of the organization but may also affect the primary collective responsibility and team work within the organization that would eventually weight down on the motive of profit (Benjamin, 2007).

Last, the metaphor of Mayhem, Vision and Civility is geared towards the understanding that business must have a vision; for the vision to be realized, business man must wade through the mayhem of business environment and arm himself with the ethical sense of civility. According to Solomon, Competition has gone global and the market and industry dynamics have necessitated the need for companies to make concerted efforts streamlined towards ensuring that high quality goods and services are offered in the market at competitive prices. This has resulted in the adoption and implementation of several tools and strategies geared towards the aforementioned goals attainment (Anderson & Anderson, 2001). One of the strategies that have been soundly embraced by a multitude of companies is the adoption of high ethical standards within the operational culture of most organizations that have lead to a paradigm shift towards best codes of conduct and ethics. The myth of Mayhem and civility has thus expounded on the rush to entrench ethical standards within the culture of business while at the same time manage the mayhem of the business environment.

Solomon presents a long list of virtues that are critical to the performance of business. The three most pivotal business virtues in my analysis of the work of Solomon include charisma, determination and ambition. I believe charisma forms a critical success virtue in business because a business leader must have the capacity to influence others in taking a positive view that supports his stand in business management. This is critical in the areas on dealing with change and change management that have been known to form part of parcel of daily management activities in business (Haberberg & Rieple, 2008). Solomon therefore presents charisma as a critical virtue and reinforces its importance by charisma has the capacity to enhance and solidify the relationships between the management and the employees.

Potavin (2006) describes a true leader as one who maintains an uncompromising adherence to an internalized, but otherwise generally accepted code of moral values; who adheres to utter sincerity, honesty, and candor in all communication; and who avoids deception, expediency, artificiality, or shallowness of any kind in all situations . In addition to the above, Potavin (2006) explains that a true leader must have vision, open to change, create other leaders, value the contributions of others and possess the element of integrity. A deep examination on the life and management leadership style and virtues presented by Solomon reveal that achieve the above status, the critical virtues of determination and ambition must form part of business culture.  This involves the recognition of contributions of various employees and takes the critical role of team work into consideration. In conclusion, both determination and ambition determines both specific and broad objectives of organization and has such must form part and parcel of organizational culture.

满分Essay范文赏析

下面是一位国外老师给出满分的Essay文章,在国外留学的留学生也知道Essay是国外作业形式中最常见的,而往往很多学习都写不好,下面就为大家分析一篇满分Essay文章,希望大家能够从中学习到Essay写作的方法。

Essay 1:

Without our past, our future would be a tortuous path leading to nowhere. In order to move up the ladder of success and achievement we must come to terms with our past and integrate it into our future. Even if in the past we made mistakes, this will only make wiser people out of us and guide us to where we are supposed to be.

This past year, I was auditioning for the fall play, "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof." To my detriment I thought it would be a good idea to watch the movie in order to prepare. For two hours I studied Elizabeth Taylor's mannerisms, attitude, and diction, hoping I could mimic her performance. I auditioned for the part of "Maggie" feeling perfectly confident in my portrayal of Elizabeth Taylor, however, I was unaware that my director saw exactly what I had been thinking. Unfortunately, I didn't get the part, and my director told me that he needed to see "Maggie" from my perspective, not Elizabeth Taylor's.

I learned from this experience, and promised myself I would not try to imitate another actress, in order to create my character. Perservering, I was anxious to audition for the winter play just two months later. The play was Neil Simon's "Rumors," and would get the opportunity to play "Chris," a sarcastic yet witty role, which would be my final performance in high school. In order to develop my character, I planned out her life just as I thought it should be, gave her the voice I thought was right, and the rest of her character unfolded beautifully from there. My director told me after the first show that "Rumors" was the best work he'd ever seen from me, and that he was amazed at how I'd developed such a believable character. Thinking back to my first audition I was grateful for that chance I had to learn and to grow, because without that mistake I might have tried to base "Chris" off of someone I'd known or something I'd seen instead of becoming my own character. I utilized the memory of the Elizabeth Taylor debacle to improve my approach to acting and gave the best performance of my life so far.

Essay 2:


Memories act as both a help and a hinderance to the success of someone. Many people advise you to learn from the past and apply those memories so that you can effectively succeed by avoiding repeating your past mistakes. On the other hand, people who get too caught up with the past are unable to move on to the future.

Elie Wiesel's memoir Night perfectly exemplifies the double nature of memories. Wiesel, a Jewish man, suffered heavily throughout the Holocaust and Night is rife with horrific descriptions of his experience. These memories help to spread the view of what life was like. Through recounting these memories, Wiesel is able to educate world readers about the atrocities committed in hopes that the same blatant violations of human rights are never repeated again. Through reliving the Holocaust through his writing, Wiesel was inspired to become proactive in the battle for civil rights. Some would point to his peaceful actions and the sales of his book and label him a success.

Despite the importance of recounting such memories, Wiesel acknowledges the damage that memories can also cause. Following his liberation from the Auschwitz concentration camp, Wiesel was a bitter, jaded man. He could not even write Night until several years later. The end of the novel describes Wiesel's gradual but absolute loss of faith throughout the experience. His past experiences haunted him for several years, rendering him passive. It was not until he set aside his past that he could even focus on the future. Had he remained so consumed with the pain and damage caused in the past, he may never have achieved the success that he has attained.

Overall, Wiesel's experiences exemplify the importance of the past as a guide. Wiesel's past experiences helped to guide him in later life, but it was not until he pushed them aside that he could move on. To me this means that you should rely on your past without letting it control you. Allow your past to act as a guide, while making sure that you are also living in the present and looking to the future.

References引用格式范文赏析

   References引用格式范文赏析
    Assignment的引用格式

    国外每所大学在论文或者作业中对reference参照系统要求不一样,比如有的学校要求用哈佛文献标注格式,有的学校要求用CMS芝加哥文献标注格式,当然还有其他类型的格式,这就要求同学们向老师咨询清楚该次作业要求使用哪种文献标注格式,不要到时候白忙活。下面为大家整理了一篇references写作的范文,大家可以学习一下这篇reference里面的写作方法。

    References

Alpert, F, Heaney, J & Kuhn, KL 2009, ‘Internships in marketing: Goals, structures and assessment – Student, company and academic perspectives’, Australasian Marketing Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, May, pp. 36–45.
Boud, D 2001, ‘Using journal writing to enhance reflective practice’, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, no. 90, Summer, pp. 9–17.
Boyatzis, RE 2007, ‘Developing emotional intelligence competencies’, in J Ciarochi & JD Mayer (eds), Applying Emotional Intelligence, Psychology Press, New York, pp. 28–52.
Carson, L & Fisher, K 2006, ‘Raising the bar on criticality: Students’ critical reflection in an internship’, Journal of Management Education, vol. 30, no. 5, October.
Fisher, K n.d., ‘Critical self-reflection: what is it and how do you do it?’, Southern Cross University Teaching and Learning Seminar Notes.
Richert, AE 1990, ‘Teaching teachers to reflect: A consideration of programme structure’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, no. 22, pp. 509–527.
Schön, DA 1998, The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action,Ashgate Arena, London.
Weighart, S 2009, Learning from experience: A resource book by and for co-op/internship professionals, Mosaic Eye Publishing, USA.

社会学的essay范文

这是一个关乎社会essay的问题。关于出生率下降的问题,出生率正在下降,在发达国家。有一个简单的原因,现在的年轻人崇尚自由,不想要要孩子”而且这种情况已经到了一定的程度,你同意这种观点吗?相关阅读资料和证据支持你的论点。

"Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women". To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence.

Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called "baby crash". commentMy argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe, is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.

commentThe birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998). In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong's has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country's population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these "greying" societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998).

commentSo what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a "post-materialist age", where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000). He uses the term "parasite singles" to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are "spoilt", he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada, it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan's languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as "selfishness" (McDonald, 2000a).

commentBut is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the "pleasure-seeking" values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents.

commentSome conservative thinkers believe the main "obstacle" is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women's improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability.

commentBut there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the "feminist paradox" and concludes that "empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate" (my emphasis). Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, "whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women".

We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows:

  1. Young people today, in spite of what's said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like.
  2. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has.

commentThese conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity.

Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article 'Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses' discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls "Rational Choice Theory", whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.

commentMcDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - "Risk Aversion Theory" - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood:

Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15).

Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men's reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks:

Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12).

And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada's analysis of "parasite singles", argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young.

Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents.

commentIf we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is "selfish" to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children.

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References

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Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02.

Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can't blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14.

Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101.

Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on "Japan's Dependent Singles", Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56

Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. 

McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. 
Available: http://elecpress.monash.edu.au/pnp/free/pnpv8n1/ Opens in a new window [Accessed 10/5/03]

McDonald, P. (2000b). The "toolbox" of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. 

Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies.

Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge.